A Thematic Introduction to the Surahs of the Qur’an

Want to get an idea about the key themes covered in a chapter of the Quran?

Dr. Muzammil H. Siddiqi has summarized the central theme and sub-themes in each Surah of the Quran based on the structure of the Surah. Click on a the name of the Surah in the table of index below to read its thematic introduction.

1. Al-Fatihah (The Opening) 2. Al-Baqarah (The Cow) 3. Al-'Imran (The Family of Amran)
4. An-Nisa' (The Women) 5. Al-Ma'idah (The Food) 6. Al-An'am (The Cattle)
7. Al-A'raf (The Elevated Places) 8. Al-Anfal (Voluntary Gifts) 9. Al-Bara'at / At-Taubah(The Immunity)
10. Yunus (Jonah) 11. Hud (Hud) 12. Yusuf (Joseph)
13. Ar-Ra'd (The Thunder) 14. Ibrahim (Abraham) 15. Al-Hijr (The Rock)
16. An-Nahl (The Bee) 17. Bani Isra'il (The Israelites) 18. Al-Kahf (The Cave)
19. Maryam (Mary) 20. Ta Ha (Ta Ha) 21. Al-Anbiya' (The Prophets)
22. Al-Hajj (The Pilgrimage) 23. Al-Mu'minun (The Believers) 24. An-Nur (The Light)
25. Al-Furqan (The Discrimination) 26. Ash-Shu'ara' (The Poets) 27. An-Naml (The Naml)
28. Al-Qasas (The Narrative) 29. Al-'Ankabut (The Spider) 30. Ar-Rum (The Romans)
31. Luqman (Luqman) 32. As-Sajdah (The Adoration) 33. Al-Ahzab (The Allies)
34. Al-Saba' (The Saba') 35. Al-Fatir (The Originator) 36. Ya Sin (Ya Sin)
37. As-Saffat (Those Ranging in Ranks) 38. Sad (Sad) 39. Az-Zumar (The Companies)
40. Al-Mu'min (The Believer) 41. Ha Mim (Ha Mim) 42. Ash-Shura (Counsel)
43. Az-Zukhruf (Gold) 44. Ad-Dukhan (The Drought) 45. Al-Jathiyah (The Kneeling)
46. Al-Ahqaf (The Sandhills) 47. Muhammad (Muhammad) 48. Al-Fath (The Victory)
49. Al-Hujurat (The Apartments) 50. Qaf (Qaf) 51. Ad-Dhariyat (The Scatterers)
52. At-Tur (The Mountain) 53. An-Najm (The Star) 54. Al-Qamar (The Moon)
55. Ar-Rahman (The Beneficent) 56. Al-Waqi'ah (The Event) 57. Al-Hadid (Iron)
58. Al-Mujadilah (The Pleading Woman) 59. Al-Hashr (The Banishment) 60. Al-Mumtahanah (The Woman who is Examined)
61. As-Saff (The Ranks) 62. Al-Jumu'ah (The Congregation) 63. Al-Munafiqun (The Hypocrites)
64. At-Taghabun (The Manifestation of Losses) 65. At-Talaq (Divorce) 66. At-Tahrim (The Prohibition)
67. Al-Mulk (The Kingdom) 68. Al-Qalam (The Pen) 69. Al-Haqqah (The Sure Truth)
70. Al-Ma'arij (The Ways of Ascent) 71. Nuh (Noah) 72. Al-Jinn (The Jinn)
73. Al-Muzzammil (The One Covering Himself) 74. Al-Muddaththir (The One Wrapping Himself Up) 75. Al-Qiyamah (The Resurrection)
76. Al-Insan (The Man) 77. Al-Mursalat (Those Sent Forth) 78. An-Naba' (The Announcement)
79. An-Nazi'at (Those Who Yearn) 80. 'Abasa (He Frowned) 81. At-Takwir (The Folding Up)
82. Al-Infitar (The Cleaving) 83. At-Tatfif (Default in Duty) 84. Al-Inshiqaq (The Bursting Asunder)
85. Al-Buruj (The Stars) 86. At-Tariq (The Comer by Night) 87. Al-A'la (The Most High)
88. Al-Ghashiyah (The Overwhelming Event) 89. Al-Fajr (The Daybreak) 90. Al-Balad (The City)
91. Ash-Shams (The Sun) 92. Al-Lail (The Night) 93. Ad-Duha (The Brightness of the Day)
94. Al-Inshirah (The Expansion) 95. At-Tin (The Fig) 96. Al-'Alaq (The Clot)
97. Al-Qadr (The Majesty) 98. Al-Bayyinah (The Clear Evidence) 99. Al-Zilzal (The Shaking)
100. Al-'Adiyat (The Assaulters) 101. Al-Qari'ah (The Calamity) 102. At-Takathur (The Abundance of Wealth)
103. Al-'Asr (The Time) 104. Al-Humazah (The Slanderer) 105. Al-Fil (The Elephant)
106. Al-Quraish (The Quraish) 107. Al-Ma'un (Acts of Kindness) 108. Al-Kauthar (The Abundance of Good)
109. Al-Kafirun (The Disbelievers) 110. An-Nasr (The Help) 111. Al-Lahab (The Flame)
112. Al-Ikhlas (The Unity) 113. Al-Falaq (The Dawn) 114. An-Nas (The Men)

1. Surah al-Fatihah

This is the first Surah of the Qur'an, although it is not the first in the order of revelation.  It was revealed to the Prophet -peace be upon him- in Makkah in the early period of his mission. The Surah has seven verses.

The Surah is both a Du'a (prayer) and an introduction of the Qur'an.  It teaches the basic principles of Islamic faith. All praise and thanks are for Allah who is the Lord of all the worlds. Allah is most merciful and most compassionate. Allah is also the Master of the Day of Judgment.  We should pray to Allah only and we should seek His help.  We seek His guidance and help to walk on the straight path.  This is the path of those who received Allah's favors, not the path of those who incurred His anger or who went astray.


2. Surah al-Baqarah

This is the longest Surah of the Qur'an.  It has 286 verses divided in 40 sections. This Surah was revealed in Madinah. The Surah deals with a number of issues related to beliefs, history, law and morality. The Surah begins with the statement that it is Allah who revealed this book (the Qur'an) for the guidance of those who are conscious of Allah. Only those who seek guidance can benefit from the guidance of this Book.  There are three types of human beings:

  1. Those who believe in the unseen realities, perform prayers, give part of their wealth in charity, believe in what is revealed in this scripture and what was revealed before to other prophets and messengers of Allah.  These are the true believers.  They shall benefit from this book and they shall be eternally successful.
  2. Second group consists of those who have decided to reject Allah's message.  They are the Kafirs.  Since they have made up their minds to reject Islam, no preaching will help them.  Allah will punish them on the Day of Judgment because of their rejection.
  3. Third is the group of people who say that they have believed, but actually they have not believed.  They try to be on both sides: sometimes at the side of faith and sometimes at the side of unfaith.  They are the hypocrites.  They may think that in this way they will gain both sides, but in reality they are also the losers.

All people are invited to worship Allah and to become His true servants.  Allah created all people and He made the earth and heaven for their benefit and produced sustenance for them.  The problem comes when people deny their Creator, break the relations that Allah told them to keep, follow the wrong ways in life and make mischief in the land.

The story of the creation of human beings is told.  Allah created Adam.  He gave him knowledge, asked angels to bow to him and gave him and his wife the garden of bliss to reside and enjoy its fruits.  He told them to eat whatever they wished, but not to approach one tree.  But Satan caused Adam to lose paradise.  Allah sent Adam and his wife to earth and told them that they must remember the lesson that they learnt in the Paradise: They need God's guidance. Satan is their biggest enemy.  Those who will obey Allah on this earth will return to Paradise, but those who will obey Satan may end up in hell.

Allah's covenant with the children of Israel is mentioned.  It is mentioned that those who receive Allah's covenant they must live by it. Allah blessed those who fulfill their promise with Him. Prophet Ibrahim's prayer, Ka'bah's importance and the coming of Prophet Muhammad is also mentioned.  The command to change the direction of prayer from Jerusalem to Ka'bah to emphasize the final covenant of Allah with Prophet Muhammad and his followers. The Surah also speaks about basic beliefs, acts of worship, economic dealings, moral and manners.  The rules of marriage, divorce and 'iddah are mentioned.  The Surah has discussed many subjects.  Following the outline of the sections of this Surah.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. The Book of Guidance for those who want to be righteous. The difference between the believers and the non-believers.
  2. The hypocrites: their sickness, mischief and self-deception.
  3. Mankind, worship Allah alone. Make no partners in Allah's divinity. The challenge of the Qur’an. This Book will guide many but many will remain in error. The character of those who shall remain in error.
  4. The story of the creation of Adam. Allah’s plan and promise to send His guidance from time to time through His prophets.
  5. Address to Bani Israel to accept this message. Allah’s covenant must be fulfilled.
  6. Warnings to those who stray from the covenant of God. How some from among the Children of Israel turned away from God’s teachings.
  7. God’s blessings on the Children of Israel and their transgressions.
  8. The real recipients of Divine salvation. The hesitation of Bani Israel in sacrificing the cow.
  9. Some perversions of those who were supposed to follow the law of God.
  10. Basic principles of God’s Covenant with the Children of Israel.
  11. Some of them were arrogant to follow the teachings of their prophets, some rejected the prophets or tried to kill them, some worshipped the calf, disobeyed God’s commands and became too greedy for the life of this world.
  12. Opposition and enmity towards the Prophets, following devils and magic.
  13. Reminders to the Believers to follow these examples. Stay firm on your principles.  Some among the People of the Book will try to mislead you with false claims and assertions.
  14. The true guidance of Allah is here. Read the Book of Allah and follow it.
  15. The great example of Prophet Ibrahim –peace be upon him. He and his son built the Ka’bah and prayed for a Prophet to come.
  16. Prophet Ibrahim –peace be upon him- submitted to Allah and this is the message that he and his sons gave to their progeny. 
  17. The change of Qiblah and the response of the hypocrites and fools.  Those who have knowledge know that this is the true Qiblah of all the Prophets.
  18. Follow this direction wherever you are. This is the universal Qiblah for all.
  19. Believers will be tried but they should be firm and steadfast and must face the trials with patience and prayers.
  20. Allah’s signs and His bounties are everywhere.  The polytheists and idolaters are misplacing their loyalties.
  21. Believers should eat good and permissible food and should never follow the steps of the devil.
  22. The true piety and righteousness. Some rules related to the punishment of murderers.  The rules of bequests.
  23. Fasting and Ramadan: the objective of fasting and some rules.
  24. Rules of Hajj, fighting those who expelled Muslims from their homes.
  25. No fighting during Hajj,  rather seek God’s  bounty when you return from Hajj.
  26. Appreciate God’s bounties.  All human beings were originally one community.  Divisions came later.  Be generous and defend your self and   your faith.
  27. Some important questions answered: War in the sacred months, wine and gambling, charity, orphans’ money, divorced women and their situation.
  28. The laws of divorce
  29. Continuation of the laws of divorce.
  30. Rules on the remarriage of the divorced women or the widowers.
  31. Further rules of divorce
  32. Fighting in the cause of God: two examples from history- Israelites under the leadership of Prophet Moses –peace be upon him.
  33. Under the leadership of Prophet David – peace be upon him- the victory came over the forces of Goliath.
  34. Emphasis on charity.  To Allah belong everything.  His Throne extends to heaven and earth.  No compulsion in religion. Allah brings out people from darkness unto light.
  35. Allah’s power over life and death, some examples: Prophet Ibrahim’s dialogue with Namrood, a man in the valley of dead (probably Prophet Ezekiel’s vision of Jerusalem), Prophet Ibrahim asks Allah how will He raise the dead to life. Allah’s answer to Prophet Ibrahim.
  36. Allah blesses charity : some examples of how Allah blesses charity
  37. Emphasis on charity: spend good things, give openly and secretly to the poor and needy.
  38. Prohibition of usuary (riba) and its bad effects on individuals and society
  39. Some rules on loan transactions
  40. Conclusion and prayer: Everything in the heaven and earth belong to Allah, the prayer of the believers.

3. Surah 'Al 'Imran

This is the 3rd Surah of the Qur'an according to its arrangement, but it is 89th Surah according to the order of revelation.  It is a Madani Surah.  This means that it was revealed after the Hijrah, some part of it was revealed in the 3rd year of Hijrah and some later.

'Al 'Imran means "the family of 'Imran".  Imran was the father of Prophets Musa and Haroon -peace be upon them. There are references in this Surah to these two great Prophets of Allah and then the story of Mary and birth of Jesus is mentioned. 

The main topics of this Surah are Tawhid, Prophethood and the truth of the Qur' an.  As Surah al-Baqarah discussed the issues related to Bani Israel, this Surah discusses some issues related to the Christian community and their religious positions.  It also discusses the subjects of Hajj, Jihad, Zakat and Riba. It ends, like Surah al-Baqarah, with a du'a.

This Surah consists of 200 verses divided in 20 sections.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Allah is the Ever-Living, Self-Subsisting.  He sent the Qur'an as He sent before the Tawrat and Injil for the guidance of people.  True believers are those who accept every thing of the Book of Allah and try to understand it.  Believers pray always for Allah's guidance for them.
  2. Those who reject the truth, their wealth and their progeny will not avail them anything against the chastisement of Allah.
  3. Allah bears witness for His own Tawhid as well as the angels and the people of knowledge.  The religion acceptable in the sight of Allah is Islam.
  4. To love Allah one must follow the Prophet.  Obedience to Allah and His Messenger are necessary for faith.  Allah chose Adam, Noah, Family of Ibrahim and the Family of Imran to guide humanity through them. Many prophets and messengers of Allah came for this purpose.
  5. Birth of Jesus -peace be upon him- and his true message.
  6. Jesus preached the message of Tawhid. His true followers are those who recognize Tawhid. Jesus’ birth was miraculous, just as Adam’s was miraculous. Some Christians argued with the Prophet. He asked them to come for an open Mubahalah.
  7. Invitation to the People of the Book to come to a common word of Tawhid and obedience to Allah.
  8. Some People of the Book try to discredit Islam. Muslims are warned to be conscious of this challenge.
  9. Previous prophets and their scriptures confirm the truth of Islam.
  10. Charity and sacrifice are necessary to attain faith and piety. Muslims should pay attention to the Ka’bah and stand firm to give the message of Islam to the world.
  11. Muslims must remain conscious of Allah and must hold fast together the rope of Allah, i.e His Book and His guidance.
  12. Role of the Muslim Ummah in the world.
  13. Critical review of the Battle of Uhud
  14. Prohibition of Riba and emphasis on charity. Believers must hasten to seek the forgiveness from their Lord. Some beautiful characters and qualities of the believers are mentioned.
  15. Prophet Muhammad is only a Messenger of Allah like other messengers. His death should not mean giving up the faith.  Believers must persevere and be patient in difficulties.
  16. Criticism of those who showed weakness during the Battle of Uhud. Muslims should be strong in their commitment to faith.
  17. True believers and the hypocrites.  Hypocrites' delinquency at the time of Uhud
  18. Steadfast attitude of the Believers.  Shaitan tries to frighten the Believers, but the true Believers become even stronger after trials and tests.
  19. Some propaganda of the People of the Book against Islam and how to respond to such challenges.
  20. Allah’s promise of success for the Believers. How the believers should pray to Allah and seek His blessings.

4. Surah al-Nisa'  

This is a Madani Surah revealed to the Prophet -peace be upon him- between the years 3 and 5 of Hijrah. There are three main themes of this Surah: 

  1. Establishment of the new Islamic social order after removing the pre-Islamic Jahili system.
  2. Answers to the oppositions of Mushrik Arabs as well as neighboring Jews and Christians.
  3. Da'wah of Islam to new people

This Surah consists of 176 ayat divided in 24 sections.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Responsibility to take care of the family.  Special care of orphans.
  2. Laws of inheritance.  It is an obligation from Allah.
  3. Relations between men and women should be based on the principle of equity and goodness.
  4. Rules of marriage especially concerning the women who cannot be taken in marriage.
  5. Men and women's rights over their properties.
  6. Disagreement and reconciliation between husband and wife.
  7. Internal and external purity: rules of wudu, ghusl and prayers.
  8. Fulfill the trusts and refer all disputes to Allah and His Messenger.
  9. Those who decline to accept the decisions of Allah's Messenger are the hypocrites.
  10. It is the duty of the Believers to establish justice and protect the poor and oppressed.
  11. Hypocrites' attitude to the Prophet and to the Believers
  12. How to deal with the hypocrites who are prone to fighting
  13. Believers must respect the life of other Believers, Murder and its punishment.
  14. Believers must join and live with other Believers unless they are unable to do so.
  15. Prayers for the travelers and those who are in the battlefield.
  16. Always be just and do not take the side of the unjust.
  17. The secret councils of the hypocrites.
  18. Allah will not forgive Shirk. Shaitan's misleading of humans through deceptions and false promises.
  19. Some more directions about dealing with orphans and family disputes.
  20. Believers must stand for justice for all.  Must pay attention to their faith.
  21. Hypocrites try to deceive Allah.  They are lazy in their prayers. Their end will be the lowest part of hell.
  22. Allah's punishment for those who broke their covenant with Him.  Some People of the Book tried to crucify Jesus, but Allah saved him.
  23. The message of Islam is the same as the message of previous Prophets.
  24. Invitation to the People of the Book to accept Islam and recognize the true teachings of Jesus. Some more elaboration on the law of Inheritance.

5. Surah al-Ma'idah

This is the 5th Surah according to the arrangement of the Qur'an and 112th according to the order of revelation.  It was revealed in Madina soon after the Treaty of Hudaibiyah either towards the end of the 6th year of Hijrah or at the beginning of the 7th year of Hijrah. In this Surah there is a verse (5:3) that is believed to be the last verse revealed to the Prophet -peace be upon him. The Surah consists of 120 verses in 16 sections.

There are six main points discussed in this Surah:

  1. All obligations whether they are divine or human should be fulfilled. When we have a pledge or promise or sign a treaty we must abide by it. Also Allah gave some rules for life to keep us clean and sober.  Cleanliness of the body, living with justice, being upright and moral, avoiding sin, corruption and superstition, and doing the deeds of piety and righteousness are important rules and principles and must be observed.
  2. Message to the People of the Book i.e. Christians and Jews to recognize the truth.  Allah's punishment comes on those who reject Allah's rules and knowingly violate them.
  3. The story of the two children of Adam is told.  This story has many lessons. Sometime even your brothers become envious of you and they harm you.  Just and righteous persons sometimes suffer at the hands of their own family members, but God's judgment also comes. The righteous under no situation give up right attitude and behavior.
  4. Muslims must deal with justice with all people.  Justice should be impartial, even to their enemies they must be just.  However, relations among Muslims themselves should be deeper.  There should not be only justice but also love, brotherhood, care and concern for each other.
  5. Enjoy the good things that Allah has given, but guard against excesses.  Do not indulge in swearing, gambling, intoxicants, superstitions, violation of the sanctities of the Sanctuary of Allah (the Ka'bah).
  6. Jesus -peace be upon him- was a great prophet of Allah. He performed many miracles, but his teachings were not followed and they were corrupted after his departure from this earth.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. General Rules of Discipline
  2. Cleanliness for prayers, Command to abide by justice.
  3. Allah's covenant with the Children of Israel.
  4. Children of Israel broke the covenant of God.
  5. Musa -peace be upon him- warned the Children of Israel.
  6. Story of the two children of Adam, Punishment for the offenders.
  7. Allah's rules must be established.
  8. The relations of Muslims with their opponents.
  9. Those who make the mockery of the truth.
  10. How Christians deviated from the truth.
  11. Some Christians came closer to Islam and recognized the truth.
  12. Prohibition against intoxicants, gambling and shirk.
  13. Respect of the Ka'bah.
  14. Rules against idolatry and about testimony.
  15. Some miracles of Jesus -peace be upon him.
  16. How the teachings of Jesus were corrupted after his departure.

6. Surah al-An'am

This is the 6th Surah according to the arrangement of the Qur'an and 55th Surah according to the order of revelation.  This Surah was revealed in Makkah about one or two years before the Hijrah.  The Surah has 165 verses in 20 sections.

In this Surah the message of Tawhid is highly emphasized.  It contains basic principles of Tawhid.  It gives beautiful description of Allah's creative power.  It criticizes Shirk and its manifestations. Basic topics discussed here are: 

  1. Unity of Allah is the reality in this universe.
  2. Polytheism has no foundation.
  3. Prophet Ibrahim -peace be upon him- preached Tawhid.  Other Prophets also gave the same message.
  4. Allah's judgment will come and the truth will prevail.
  5. Allah gives right guidance about food and other matters of life.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Allah created the heaven and earth but the non-believers call others equal to Allah.
  2. Allah’s punishment came upon those who denied the truth.
  3. On the Day of Judgment the Mushrikin will admit their guilt.
  4. Those who deny the Hereafter they are the real losers. Non-believers ridiculed Allah's Prophets, but in the end the truth prevailed.
  5. Nations were warned before.  Allah did try them in various ways.
  6. Believers should be respected
  7. Allah is the Final judge and He will decide the destiny of the individuals or nations.
  8. Allah’s majesty, power and might
  9. Prophet Ibrahim's arguments against Shirk.
  10. Other Prophets also gave the message of Tawhid.
  11. Allah's revelation to His Prophets.
  12. Allah's signs in the creation.
  13. Allah has no partner, no son. 
  14. Arrogance of the non-believers and their opposition to the Prophets. Do not eat the animals slaughtered in the name of any one other than Allah.
  15. Those who plot against Allah, they suffer themselves.
  16. Superstitions of the Mushrikin.
  17. Allah's gifts for humanity and people's self-imposed prohibitions.
  18. What are the things that Allah has forbidden?
  19. Universal principles of Islam.
  20. The true religion: prayer, sacrifice, life, death, everything must be for Allah.

7. Surah al-A'raf

This is the 7th Surah of the Qur'an and according to some authorities it is the 39th Surah according to the order of revelation.  This Surah was revealed in Makkah about a year or two before the Hijrah.  It consists of 206 verses in 24 sections.

The basic theme of this Surah is Risalah, i.e. Allah's message as it was sent through many messengers. Several Prophets and parts of their stories are mentioned to emphasize Prophets’ mission and their struggle with their people.  The Surah tells us that Allah's Prophets suffered for the cause of truth. Their enemies tried to harm them, but then Allah helped his prophets and defeated their enemies.  The Surah emphasizes that the true message must be presented under all circumstances. After the Prophets it is the duty of the Believers to convey the message of Allah to all people.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. The Qur’an is revealed to remind the believers and to warn humankind about the consequences of their actions. The judgment will indeed take place.
  2. The story of Man's creation and Satan's opposition to Man.
  3. Warning to the Children of Adam to be aware of Satan's plots.
  4. Allah's messengers came to guide people.
  5. The end of those who denied the message and those who accepted the message.
  6. Cries of the wicked in the hellfire.
  7. The righteous will prosper.
  8. Some lessons from the story of Prophet Noah -peace be upon him.
  9. Some lessons from the story of Prophet Hud- peace be upon him.
  10. Some lessons from the story of Prophets Salih and Lot -peace be upon them.
  11. Some lessons from the story of Prophet Shu'aib -peace be upon him.
  12. Warnings against those who deny the Prophets and Messengers of Allah.
  13. Prophet Moses -peace be upon him- and his encounter with Pharaoh of Egypt.
  14. Pharaoh and his magicians were defeated.
  15. Pharaoh continued in his persecution of the Israelites.
  16. Some more signs were shown to Pharaoh and his people.
  17. The Torah was given to Prophet Moses- peace be upon him.
  18. Some Israelites started Calf worship.
  19. The Torah and Injil speak about the coming of Prophet Muhammad -peace be upon him.  Allah's promise for those who will follow the last Prophet.
  20. Prophet Muhammad is the Universal Prophet.  Some among the people of Prophet Moses were guided by the truth and lived with justice.
  21. Some Israelites transgressed Allah's laws and they suffered the consequences.
  22. The eternal covenant of Allah was taken from all human beings.
  23. The coming of the Last Hour
  24. Shirk has no logic. Ignore the wrongdoers, but invite to Allah with kindness.  Listen to the Qur'an and always remember Allah.

8. Surah al-Anfal

Surah 88 according to the order of revelation.  This is a Madani Surah revealed soon after the Battle of Badr in the 2nd year of Hijrah (or 624 CE). This Surah has 75 verses in 10 sections.

The Surah reminds the Believers to obey Allah and His Messenger and keep their relations good with each other.  It has given rules of war and peace between Muslims and their enemies.  In this Surah, six times Allah has addressed Muslims with "O you who believe" (see vss. 15; 20; 24; 28; 29; 46)

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Commandment relating to the spoils of war.  Battle of Badr
  2. Allah's help for the Believers in the Battle of Badr.
  3. Believers must always obey Allah and His Messenger.
  4. Only the righteous should be the guardians of the Masjid al-Haram.
  5. The purpose of war and the rules about the distribution of the spoils of war.
  6. Be firm and united in the combat against the enemy.
  7. Victory of the Believers against the unbelievers.  Allah does not change His blessings unless people change themselves.
  8. Be prepared always to defend yourself and your people. Make peace if the enemy is inclined towards peace.
  9. Allah's promise to help the Believers.
  10. Treatment of the prisoners of war and obligations towards Muslims living among non-Muslims.

9. Surah al-Tawbah

Surah 113 according to the order of revelation.  This is a Madani Surah revealed in the 9th year of Hijrah after the Battle of Tabuk. It has 129 verses in 16 sections.

The basic subjects of the Surah are: The non-believers who broke their treaties, Muslims have no obligation to honor treaties with them.  Muslims must protect themselves from hypocrisy, weak faith and negligence. Battle of Tabuk and its lessons.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Proclamation that the Treaty of Hudaibiyah is cancelled.
  2. Honor the treaties with those who honor them. Fight with those who have broken the treaty.
  3. Mushrikin are forbidden to be the caretakers of the Masjid al-Haram. 
  4. Muslims should trust Allah, not just their numbers.
  5. Jews and Christians also committed Shirk.  Command to spend in the path of Allah.  The correct number of months.
  6. The Tabuk expedition.
  7. Those who stayed behind and did not participate in the Battle of Tabuk, hypocrites and weak in faith.
  8. The proper distribution of charity.  Those who speak ill of the Prophet or make fun of Allah and His Book.
  9. The hypocrite men and women.

10. Surah Yunus

Surah 51 according to the order of revelation.  This Surah was revealed in Makkah perhaps a few years before the Hijrah.  It has 109 verses in 11 sections.

The main subject of this Surah is faith in Allah and belief in the Hereafter.  Those who have true faith, they worship Allah and recognize Him as their Lord and Master and live their lives in accordance to His command.  Allah sent His Messengers to remind people and to warn them.  The stories of Prophets Noah and Prophet Moses with Pharaoh are told to remind people about the consequences of unfaithfulness and arrogance.

Introduction to Sections

  1. The Qur'an is the Book of wisdom, it contains signs from the All Wise.
  2. Man's ingratitude to Allah and His revelation.
  3. Allah's mercy to His creation.  Allah invites to the abode of peace.
  4. Allah's gifts. The Qur'an is from Allah. Bring a Surah like the Qur'an if you can.
  5. Those who disbelieve in the Qur'an shall be the losers. Every people were sent a Messenger.
  6. The Qur'an is a mercy, blessing and a cure for the problems of humankind.
  7. Whatever you do Allah is a Witness. The mistakes of the Mushrikin.
  8. The story of Prophet Noah and his people.  Prophet Moses and Aaron -peace be upon them all.
  9. Allah delivered the Children of Israel from the bondage of the Pharaoh.
  10. Allah's mercy for the Children of Israel. Prophet Yunus and his people.
  11. If Allah afflicts you with any loss or wants to bestow any profit on you, none can avert it.  You must always follow Allah's guidance.

11. Surah Hud

Surah 52 according to the order of revelation.  This is a Makki Surah revealed soon after the previous Surah.  It has 123 verses and 10 sections.

In this Surah we have the stories of Prophets Noah, Salih, Hud, Lot, Shuaib and Moses -peace be upon them all. The basic point is that Allah sent His Prophets and Messengers to mankind out of His grace and mercy, but when people did not listen to the Prophets and rejected their message then Allah's punishment came and came relentlessly. It did not make any difference whether someone was the son of a Prophet or his wife or any one, none could escape Allah’s judgment.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Seek forgiveness from Allah and His bounties will be for you.
  2. Patience and good deeds bring the stability in character.
  3. The story of Prophet Noah -peace be upon him.
  4. The fate of those who disbelieved in Prophet Noah.  The moving description of the fate of Prophet Noah's son.
  5. The Message of Prophet Hud.  'Ad people denied Allah's message and were punished.
  6. The Message of Prophet Saleh, the Sign of the She-Camel, and end of Thamud.
  7. Prophet Ibrahim receives the angles.  The angels then went to Prophet Lot. The punishment of the people of Lot -peace be upon him.
  8. Prophet Shu'aib and his message, his people's denial and their punishment.
  9. Prophet Moses was sent to Pharaoh and his people.  The purpose of these stories.
  10.  Prophets were denied before.  Continue presenting the message with patience.  Had Allah forced His will upon the people, He would have made them all one people.

12. Surah Yusuf

It is a Makki Surah revealed towards the end of the Makkan period, about a year or two before the Hijrah.  This Surah has 111 ayat in 12 sections.

The basic theme of the Surah is to emphasize that all Prophets were human beings and their messages were similar. They were also highly moral beings. This is the way all believers should be.  The Prophets trusted in Allah and in the end Allah's plans did succeed.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Prophet Yusuf's dream
  2. Prophet Yusuf suffered the bad treatment of his stepbrothers.
  3. Prophet Yusuf was sold in Egypt, his firmness in piety against the temptations
  4. Prophet Yusuf in prison.
  5. Prophet Yusuf preaches to the inmates.
  6. The King's dream and Prophet Yusuf’s interpretation.
  7. Prophet Yusuf was cleared of the false charges against his character. He became a high official in Egypt.
  8. The famine in Palestine brought Prophet Yusuf's brothers to Egypt.
  9. Prophet Yusuf meets his real brother
  10. Prophet Yusuf disclosed his identity to his stepbrothers.
  11. Prophet Jacob's family comes to Egypt.  Prophet Yusuf honors his parents and forgives his brothers.
  12. In the histories of the Prophets there are many lessons for us to learn and follow.

13. Surah al-Ra'd

Opinions differ about its being Makki or Madani Surah.  According to some authorities it is Makki with the exception of few verses and according to others it is Madani except few verses revealed in Makkah.  It seems its time period is closer to the Hijrah.  The Surah has 43 verses in 6 sections.

The basic theme of the Surah is divine guidance.  Allah has created this whole universe. He knows what is in the wombs and every thing is under His knowledge.  He sent His prophets and guides to all people for their guidance and now the Last Messenger has come.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Allah's signs in nature.
  2. Allah knows everything; the whole universe praises Him.  Those who have eyes can see the truth. The truth has an abiding power.
  3. The faithful and unfaithful, their characters and their ends.
  4. The comfort of the hearts is in the remembrance of Allah.  Those who deny Allah, no signs or miracles can help them.
  5. People in the past also denied Allah's Prophets and laughed at them, but what were their ends.
  6. Prophet Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.  The witness is Allah and all those who have the knowledge of the Scriptures of Allah.

14. Surah Ibrahim

It is probably one of the last Makki Surahs.  It has 52 verses and 7 sections.

The basic theme of the Surah is Allah's guidance through His prophets.  The purpose of this guidance is to take the people from darkness to light.  Many people in the past had doubts about their prophets. They laughed at them and they threatened to kill them or expel them from their towns. However, the lasting word is the "good word." The Surah also mentions Prophet Ibrahim's prayer when he established the city of Makkah.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. The purpose of the Qur'an is to lead humankind to light.
  2. Prophets and their people.
  3. Non-believers threatened the Prophets, but Allah's promise to the Prophets.
  4. Satan misleads the disbelievers in this world, but in the hereafter he would leave them in the lurch.
  5. The ingratitude of people
  6. Prophet Ibrahim's prayer for Makkah, for its people and for his own children
  7. Allah is aware of what the wrongdoers are doing, their respite and end.

15. Surah al-Hijr

54th Surah according to the order of revelation.  This is a Makki Surah revealed about 3-4 years before the Hijrah.  It has 99 verses in 6 sections. The name al-Hijr refers probably to the same area where Thamud used to live in the northwestern part of Arabia.

The main theme of the Surah is divine guidance, and people's response.  Allah's warns those who deny this message and as a reminder of these warnings, we have here the stories of Prophet Lot's people, Thamud and other groups.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Qur'an is the Books of Allah. He revealed it and He will guard it.
  2. Allah knows everything in the universe.  He is the Creator of all.
  3. The creation of human being is from a very humble stuff, but Allah honored him and asked angels to bow down to Adam.  Satan's response.
  4. Allah is very forgiving, but His punishment is also severe.
  5. Prophet Lot and Prophet Shu'aib's people.
  6. The People of Hijr and what happened to them.  Qur'an and Surah al-Fatihah are special gifts of Allah.  Allah will take care of those who ridicule  His message.

16. Surah al-Nahl

70th Surah according to the order of revelation.  This is one of the late Makki Surahs revealed sometime before the Hijrah.  This and previous six Surahs (Yunus, Hud, Yusuf, al-Ra'd, Ibrahim and al-Hijr) were revealed one after another.  The time period and themes are similar.  This Surah has 128 verses in 16 sections.

The Surah speaks about Allah's creative power.  Everything in the universe points to Allah.  There is coherence and balance in Allah's creation.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. The whole creation points to Allah.
  2. The truth is that there is only One God.
  3. The reward of the righteous and the disgrace of the wicked.
  4. Allah's message has come.  Man is a creature of Allah, but he argues a lot.
  5. Mushrikin's argument and the answer
  6. Prophets were human beings.  The mission of the last Prophet.  Warnings to non-believers.
  7. Prohibition against shirk. Arabs used to call angels the daughters of Allah but they themselves did not like to have daughters.
  8. Allah gives time to people to repent and turn to him.
  9. Consider the bounties of Allah.  Some more signs mentioned.
  10. The comparison between the faithful and the unfaithful.
  11. Warnings about the Last Hour.  Allah's favors to humankind.
  12. Prophet Muhammad is a witness over all witnesses.
  13. Justice, benevolence, care of the kith and kin are Allah's commands.  He forbids shameful deeds, evil and aggression.
  14. Qur'an is sent by Allah; even the Prophet cannot make any changes in it.
  15. Every soul will be paid in full what it has earned. Halal and Haram are the authority of Allah.
  16. The ideal faith of Prophet Ibrahim.  The best way of giving da'wah.

17. Surah al-Isra'

Surah 50 according to the order of revelation.  This is a Makki Surah revealed after the events of Isra' and Mi'raj, which took place about a year and half before the Hijrah.  The Surah has 111 verses and 12 sections.

This Surah concentrates on some important moral and spiritual principles.  It emphasizes that human beings always need divine guidance.  Without the guidance of Allah, humans end up in evil, sin and misery.  Human beings must have good relations with each other and live in a society built on the principles of faith, justice and morality.  The Surah talks about the evils of pride and arrogance and urges human beings to reflect on Allah's signs and be humble before Him in prayers.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Isra' journey of the Prophet to Jerusalem and the history of that area.
  2. Human beings are hasty.  Reward and punishment all have their time.
  3. Moral and spiritual principles are emphasized - Worship of Allah and respect of parents.
  4. Moral principles - children's rights, decency, right of life, orphans' property, honesty in dealings, humbleness.
  5. Tawhid is the basic message of the Qur'an.
  6. Gentleness is enjoined.
  7. Satan's pride against man and his pledge to mislead human beings.
  8. Every one will be brought on the Day of Judgement with his/her own deeds.
  9. Emphasis on prayers, and on the reading of the Qur'an.
  10. The Qur'an is inimitable.
  11. Non-believers have lame arguments against accepting the Prophets.
  12. The attitude of Pharaoh towards Prophet Moses and the signs that he showed. 

18. Surah al-Kahf

69th Surah according to the order of revelation. This is a Makki Surah revealed 4-5 years before the Hijrah.  It has 110 verses in 12 sections.

The Surah answers some questions that the Mushrikin of Makkah posed to the Prophet –peace be upon him.  The answers came in a very clear way and also challenged them to accept the message of Islam. In this Surah we have the stories of: the People of the Cave, the man who had two gardens and was very proud of himself, Prophet Moses with an angelic figure, Dhulqarnain a pious ruler.  These stories are told to emphasize the value of faith, knowledge and patience, the relativity of time, and the variety in this world.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. The straight message of the Qur'an.
  2. The Companions of the Cave.
  3. The proof of resurrection.
  4. Always remember Allah.  Every thing depends on Allah’s will.
  5. The parable of an ungrateful person and a grateful person.
  6. Wealth and children are only a passing show.
  7. Satan and his progeny they are the open enemies of human beings.
  8. Allah's mercy is available all the time.
  9. Prophet Moses' search for a teacher.
  10. Some strange events and their explanations.
  11. The pious ruler Dhul Qarnain. Gog and Magog
  12. The real losers and winners.

19. Surah Maryam

This Surah was revealed in Makkah sometime before the first Hijrah to Abyssinia, which was about 8 years before the Hijrah to Madina.  The Surah has 98 verses in 6 sections.

The subject matter of this Surah is the true message and teachings of the Prophets of Allah.  Several Prophets are mentioned here: Zakariyya, Yahya, Isa and his mother Maryam, Ibrahim, Musa, Ismail and Idris -may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon all of them. Allah blessed these Prophets. They taught Tawhid and called their people to the worship of Allah alone.  Great miracles and signs were also shown in the lives of these Prophets and Messengers.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Prophet Zachariah's prayer for a son.  Birth of John (Yahya) and Allah's favors upon him.
  2. Maryam -peace be upon her - and the miraculous birth of her son Jesus -peace be upon him.
  3. Prophet Ibrahim preached the unity of Allah.  His conversation with his father.
  4. Other great Prophets and Messengers of Allah.
  5. The Resurrection will surely happen.
  6. Criticism of misconceptions about intercession and the divinity of Jesus.

20. Surah TaHa

This is a Makki Surah.  It was revealed sometime before the Hijrah to Abyssinia.  It is also mentioned that the recitation of this Surah by ‘Umar’s sister led to his conversion to Islam.  This took place sometimes in the 5th year of Prophethood. This Surah has 135 verses in 8 sections.

The subject matter of the Surah is to assure the Prophet and his followers that the message of the Qur'an will eventually succeed.  The story of Prophet Moses is mentioned in detail.  Then it is mentioned how the enemies of Islam are opposing it and what will be the consequences of this opposition for them.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Prophet Muhammad is told not to feel distress because of the denial of the unbeleivers.  Allah knows everything.  Remember the story of Moses.  Allah called him to the Prophethood and gave him special signs.
  2. Prophet Moses' prayer.  Allah commanded Moses and his brother Aaron to go to Pharaoh and give him the message.  Allah mentions His favors upon Moses.
  3. Prophet Moses goes to Pharaoh. The challenge with the Egyptian magicians.  The defeat of the magicians and then their conversion.
  4. Allah saved the Children of Israel from Pharaoh. Prophet Moses goes to Sinai.  Samiri misleads the Israelites and they worship the calf.
  5. The anger of Prophet Moses.  Samiri confessed his evil action and he was punished.
  6. The Day of Judgment. No intercession will help without Allah's permission.  The opponents of the Prophet.
  7. Devil misleads human beings.  Some references to the story of Adam and Iblis.
  8. The evil doers will be punished.  Be patient and offer regular prayers.

21. Surah al-Anbiya'

73rd according to the order of revelation.  This is a Makki Surah revealed about 5-6 years before the Hijrah.  It has112 verses in 7 sections.

The basic theme of the Surah is Prophets and Prophethood as indicated by the name itself.  All Prophets were human beings.  They suffered at the hands of their enemies. Allah also tested them, but they always trusted Allah and lived according to His command.  They were people of prayers and devotions and Allah listened to their prayers.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. The Last Messenger has come.  The judgment is coming closer.  All prophets were human beings.
  2. Heaven and earth are created for a purpose.  All Prophets preached tawhid.
  3. Every thing is created for a term. The end will come suddenly.
  4. Allah cares for you day and night.  Moses and Aaron received Allah's message and now this blessed reminder has come to you.
  5. Prophet Ibrahim argued against idolatry.
  6. Allah blessed His Prophets and delivered them.
  7. The righteous shall inherit the earth.

22. Surah al-Hajj

103rd according to the order of revelation. Some authorities consider this a Makki Surah, but according to the majority it is Madani.  This Surah has 78 verses in 10 sections.

The Surah reminds about the approaching end of the world, need for the firmness of faith to support the truth and to eradicate the evil.  It talks about prayers, humbleness and sacrifice, respect of the Ka'bah, the House of Allah, and striving to defend the truth.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. The Shaking of the Last Hour.  Arguments for the Resurrection from the stages of human creation and from the rain that produces vegetation.
  2. The marginal believers and their end.
  3. The true believers shall be rewarded.
  4. Pilgrimage to the House of Allah.
  5. Respect of the Symbols of Allah.
  6. The permission of fighting back is granted to those to whom wrong is done. The real purpose of Jihad.
  7. Satan's enticements and Allah's especial protection of His words.
  8. The reward of those who migrate in the cause of Allah.
  9. Allah's order prevails in the heaven and earth.
  10. The Muslim community is chosen by Allah for a special purpose.

23. Surah al-Mu'minun

This is an early Makki Surah revealed about 6-7 years before the Hijrah.  It has 118 verses in 6 sections.

In this Surah people are invited to accept and follow the Prophet. This is the central theme of the Surah.  It speaks about the character of true believers and assures that they will be the real successful people.  It draws attention to various stages of human creation, to many other universal signs.  Then it takes some of the stories of other prophets and tells us that they also preached the same message.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. The character of the Believers.  Various stages of human creation and Allah's signs in the universe.
  2. The Message of Prophet Noah, his people's response and then the flood.
  3. Generations were raised after Prophet Noah. Many prophets were sent among them. Then came Prophet Moses and Aaron and then came Jesus -peace be upon them all.
  4. All prophets are one Ummah and preached the same religion. Those who are affluent think that they are also the righteous people, but the righteous are only those who do the good deeds.
  5. Everything in the heaven and earth belongs to Allah.
  6. Prophet's job is to continue presenting the message of Allah. This life is the only chance. The life has a purpose.

24. Surah al-Nur

This is a Madani Surah revealed around the 6th year of Hijrah after the Battle of Mustaliq.  It has 64 verses in 9 sections.

This Surah contains many rules for the development of a society based on righteousness and morality. It talks about male-female relations, rules of proper dress for Muslim women, rules for the punishment of adultery and punishment of those who accuse others of adultery or fornication.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Punishment of adultery. Rules of testimony in the case of adultery.
  2. The false rumors against Syidah 'Aisha -may Allah be pleased with her.
  3. Beware of those who slander pious chaste women.
  4. Rules about entering others homes, proper dress, help those who are single to get married.
  5. The light of Allah and the struggle between light and darkness.
  6. Everything in the heaven and earth glorifies Allah.
  7. Believers must obey Allah and His messenger.  Allah's promise to the Believers to establish them in the land.
  8. Rules of privacy for men and women, at home and outside.
  9. Especial respect of the Prophet and Believers' duties towards him.

25. Surah al-Furqan

This is a Makki Surah revealed around the middle Makkan period about 6-7 years before the Hijrah. It has 77 verses in 6 sections.

The Surah answers some of the objections of the non-believers against the Qur'an and the teachings of Islam.  It also presents the character of the Believers as criteria to prove the truth of Islam.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Prophet Muhammad came as a Warner for the whole world. The evil of Shirk.  The objections of those who denied the Prophet and his message.
  2. The Punishment of those who deny Allah and His message.
  3. Non-believers' demand to see the angels or Allah.  Non-believers say why the whole Qur'an was not sent down at once.
  4. Examples of the people of Prophets Moses, Aaron, Noah and 'Ad, Thamud and the People of al-Rass (probably a town in Yamamah).
  5. Examples from the natural world: shadows, night and day, winds of rain, oceans with two different types of waters, creation of human beings, creation of the heaven and earth in six days.
  6. The character and qualities of the most faithful servants of Allah. 

26. Surah al-Shu'ra'

This is a Makki Surah revealed in the middle Makkan period about 6-7 years before the Hijrah.  It has 227 verses in 11 sections.

The non-believers were asking for signs to prove that the Qur'an was the word of Allah.  Allah mentioned many signs both in nature and in history.  Stories of many prophets are also mentioned to indicate that all prophets presented basically the same message.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Allah has power to bring down the mightiest sign, but here is a test for people.  This wonderful creation is a sign itself for those who want to learn.
  2. Signs were shown to Pharaoh.
  3. Pharaoh's magicians and Prophet Moses.
  4. The exodus of the Israelites from Egypt.  The sea splitting and giving the way.
  5. Prophet Ibrahim's struggle against idolatry.
  6. Prophet Noah and his people.
  7. The 'Ad and the Prophet Hud –peace be upon him.
  8. The Thamud and the Prophet Saleh –peace be upon him.
  9. Prophet Lot –peace be upon him- and his people.
  10. Prophet Shu'aib –peace be upon him- and his people.
  11. The Qur'an is the message from the Lord of the worlds. It is neither from devils nor do they have any clue of this message. It is not poetry of the poets.  It is a serious message with eternal consequences.

27. Surah al-Naml

This a Makki Surah.  It was probably revealed soon after the previous Surah.  It has 93 verses in 7 sections.

The theme of the Surah is divine guidance in history. Allah sent His Prophets to different people. Some accepted them and were guided, while others denied them and they saw the consequences of their denial.  The Surah also contrasts between the principles of tawhid and shirk.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. The Qur'an is from the All Wise and All-knower.  How did Prophet Moses received the message of Allah.  Allah gave Moses many signs but Pharaoh and his people denied them.
  2. The knowledge and power that Allah bestowed on Prophets David and Solomon. What kind of character they had.
  3. Queen of Saba' and her submission to Prophet Solomon.
  4. The response of Thamud to Prophet Saleh's message. Also the example of the people among whom Prophet Lot was sent.
  5. The contrast between the tawhid and shirk. Allah or the so-called gods of Shirk.
  6. The surety of Resurrection.
  7. The coming of the Day of Judgment.

28. Surah al-Qasas

This is a Makki Surah revealed most probably after the previous Surah in the middle Makkan period.  The Surah consists of 88 verses in 9 sections.

The basic theme of this Surah is the prophethood. Some aspects of the life of Prophet Moses -peace be upon him- are mentioned to show the similarity between him and Prophet Muhammad –peace be upon all the prophets of Allah. There are also answers here to the questions and doubts that were raised by some non-believers.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Story of Moses and Pharaoh is related.  Pharaoh was persecuting the Israelites. Allah wished to show his favor to the oppressed people.  Birth of Moses and then his growing up in Pharaoh's own palace.
  2. Moses' encounter with an Egyptian and his escape to Madyan.
  3. Moses' marriage in Madyan.
  4. Moses receives Prophethood and especial signs from Allah. His appearance before Pharaoh. Pharaoh's denial and then Allah's punishment for him and his armies.
  5. The Prophet relating these stories by inspiration from Allah and for a purpose.
  6. Allah's guidance is continuos.
  7. The message of Islam is tawhid.
  8. The story of Qarun: his character and his end.
  9. Allah's promise for the Believers.

29. Surah al-'Ankabut

This is a Makki Surah.  It was probably revealed in early Makkan period before the migration to Ebyssinia. It has 69 verses in 7 sections.

This Surah reminds the Believers to be strong in their faith and not to give up their faith because of hardship or family pressures.  Stories of previous Prophets and their followers are also mentioned here to show that the path of truth is not an easy path.  It has trials and hardships.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Tests and trials are part of faith.
  2. Examples of Prophets Noah and Ibrahim -peace be upon them.
  3. Example of Prophet Lot –peace be upon him.
  4. Example of Prophet Shu'aib.  References to the people of 'Ad, Thamud, Qarun and Pharaoh.  Message of Prophet Moses -peace be upon him. Spider web of Shirk.
  5. Give the message of Allah in the best way.
  6. Warnings to the non-believers.
  7. The truth will succeed.  Allah guides the steps of those who follow the right path.

30. Surah al-Rum

This is a Makki Surah and it was revealed about 5 years after the Prophethood, in the same year in which the first Hijrah to Ebyssinia took place. The Surah has 60 verses in 6 sections.

The Surah reminds us that Allah is in control of everything. Those who are short sighted they see only what is apparent but they do not realize that there is a Creator and Master of this whole universe and it is He who is governing everything. Final decision is in Allah's hand.  The Akhirah will take place and the truth will prevail. 

Introduction to the Sections

  1. The defeat of the Romans and then later their victory is foretold.
  2. Creation and Resurrection belong to Allah.  Glorify Allah at different times of the day.
  3. The signs of Allah in nature.
  4. The true religion corresponds and enhances the nature.  Teachings of the religion of nature: tawhid, care of the family and relatives, economic justice and charity.
  5. Corruption caused by human beings. Evidence of corruption in history.  Evidence of resurrection in nature.
  6. The Day of Resurrection.

31. Surah Luqman

This is an early Makki Surah, revealed perhaps before the Surah al-'Ankabut.  It has 34 verses in 4 sections.

In this Surah Tawhid is emphasized and Shirk and its ideas are critically examined.  It tells us that those who are following Shirk they are only blindly following their forefathers. The true wisdom is to believe in Allah.  The advises of Luqman the wise are also given here to support the same principles.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Qur'an is a book of guidance and mercy for all people.
  2. The advises of Luqman the wise man.
  3. Signs of tawhid in the heaven and earth. Shirk or polytheism has no basis.
  4. In crisis people turn to the Real God.  Let not the things of this world deceive you.  All knowledge belongs to Allah.

32. Surah al-Sajdah

This is a Makki Surah revealed in the middle Makkan period. It has 30 verses in 3 sections.

The Surah discusses some of the doubts and arguments of the non-believers against the principles of Tawhid, Risalah and Akhirah.  It invites human beings to think and reflect on their own selves and on the nature surrounding them.  Every thing points that there is a Wise and Powerful Creator for this universe. He has not created all this phenomenon in vain. The creation has a purpose.

Introduction to the Section

  1. The Qur'an is from the Lord of the Worlds.  Allah created this whole universe.  He created human beings, but some human beings deny the resurrection.
  2. The difference between the Believers and non-Believers.
  3. The Mission of Prophet Moses -peace be upon him. Take lessons from the history of other nations. Signs of resurrection in nature.  

33. Surah al-Ahzab

This is a Madani Surah revealed sometime in the 5th year of Hijrah.  It has 73 verses in 9 sections.

The Surah deals with a number of social and political issues.  It talks about the practice of child-adoption, some marriage customs, battle of Ahzab and Bani Quraizah, social issues related to Hijab of Muslim women.  It also talks about the hypocrites and their conduct in the society.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. The custom of adoption and Islamic instructions about it.  Prophet Muhammad -peace be upon him- is dearer to the believers than their own selves.
  2. The Battle of Ahzab and the way of the hypocrites.
  3. The excellent role model of the Prophet Muhammad -peace be upon him.
  4. The household of the Prophet, his pious wives.
  5. Allah's rewards for the Believing men and women. Prophet's marriage with Zainab. The finality of the Prophethood.
  6. Prophet Muhammad -peace be upon him- is sent as a witness, a bearer of glad tidings and Shining Lamp.  The marriages of the Prophet: certain privileges and restrictions.
  7. Rules of conduct in domestic relations.
  8. Rules of Hijab, Warnings to the hypocrites, the Last Hour.
  9. Believers must speak right.  The burden of trust assumed by the human being.

34. Surah Saba'

This is a Makki Surah revealed to the Prophet -peace be upon him- sometime in the early or middle Makkan period about 7- 8 years before the Hijrah.  It has 54 verses in 6 sections.

The Surah answers some of the objections raised by the non-believers about Tawhid, Risalah and Akhirah.  It also speaks about Prophets David and Solomon and the Queen of Sheba to remind people about the consequences of evils as well as righteousness.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. The Day of Judgment will surely come.
  2. Allah's favors on Prophets David and Solomon.  Allah's judgment on the people of Saba'.
  3. Shirk will be of no use on the Day of Judgment. Prophet Muhammad is sent for all people.
  4. The wrong leaders will leave their followers on the Day of Judgment, the discussion of their mutual recrimination.
  5. Material riches do not necessarily bring you closer to Allah.
  6. The truth will prosper.

35. Surah Fatir

This is a Makki Surah revealed sometimes in the middle period of Prophet's residence in Makkah.  This Surah has 45 verses in 5 sections.

In this Surah Allah warns the non-believers on their negative attitude towards Islam and Prophet Muhammad -peace be upon him.  The basic message is also explained to them.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Allah's creative power and His angels.  None can stop the mercy of Allah. Be aware of Satan.
  2. The success of the truth over falsehood will surely come.
  3. Allah has power to remove you and bring another group in your place.  Every people had a Warner.
  4. The true believers in Allah.
  5. Allah's plan cannot be changed or altered.  Allah gives time to people to repent.

36. Surah Yasin

This is a Makki Surah revealed sometime in the middle Makkan period.  It has 83 verses in 5 sections.

The Surah explains some of the basic beliefs of Islam, especially the belief in life after death and the Akhirah.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. The truth of the Qur'an and the truth of Prophet Muhammad - peace be upon him.
  2. Allah's messengers were sent to other people.  The response of those to whom the prophets were sent and the result of their denial.
  3. Allah's signs in nature to remind about the day of Resurrection.
  4. The scenes of the day of Resurrection.
  5. Reminders about death and the Day of Judgment.

37. Surah al-Saffat

This is a Makki Surah and it was revealed sometime in the middle Makkan period.  It has 182 verses in 5 sections.

The Surah speaks about the unity of Allah in very strong terms.  It talks about the teachings of various prophets of Allah.  All of them preached the same message.  It gives warnings to the non-believers that their plots against the message of Islam will not work.  The truth will prevail.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. The Lord of the heaven and earth is one God.  The mockers at the Prophet of God will one day see the truth.  The Day of Judgment will dawn suddenly.
  2. The guilty shall be punished and virtuous will be rewarded.
  3. Allah delivered Prophet Noah from his enemies.  Prophet Ibrahim's encounter with idolatry.  The test of Prophet Ibrahim. His willingness to sacrifice his son.
  4. How Allah delivered Prophets Moses, Aaron, Elias and Lot and punished their enemies.
  5. How Prophet Yunus was delivered from the belly of the whale. Angels are not Allah's daughters; they are Allah's servants.  Allah's messengers will succeed.

38. Surah Saad

This is a Makki Surah.  It was revealed around the time of first Hijrah to Ebyssinia about 5 year of Prophethood.  It has 88 verses in 5 sections.

The Surah talks about the basic message of all the Prophets and Messengers of Allah.  They came to preach Tawhid. The Prophet suffered and went through a lot of hardship in presenting Allah's message.  Their enemies attacked them and persecuted them, but then finally it was the truth that prevailed and falsehood was defeated.  Power and riches all come from Allah.  Some people become arrogant when they have power.  But Allah gave the examples of David and Solomon who were great prophets as well as powerful kings. They obey Allah. Their riches did not corrupt them.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Warnings to the disbelievers.  The arguments of the disbelievers against the Qur'an and the Prophet. The defeat of the disbelievers.
  2. Remember Allah's servant Prophet David.  Allah's blessings upon him.  He was tested and he turned to Allah.
  3. Allah's blessings upon Prophet Solomon.  He was also tested, but he repented and was forgiven by Allah.
  4. Allah tested Prophet Job and he was rewarded for his patience.  Remember Allah's servants: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Ishmael, Elisha and Zulkifl.  The warnings for the wicked.
  5. There is only one God.  The great message.  Allah created Adam, but Iblis became his enemy.  He vowed to mislead human beings.  Allah's curse came upon him and upon those who follow him.

39. Surah al-Zumar

This is a Makki Surah.  It was revealed most probably sometime before the Hijrah of Abyssinia.  It has 75 verses in 8 sections.

The Surah talks about the true religion. It is to serve Allah sincerely and to avoid Shirk.  Tawhid brings the blessings of Allah, while Shirk has terrible consequences.  The Believers are told not to despair and lose heart.  If it is difficult for them to practice their religion in one place, they can migrate from that land.  The unbelievers are told that they can do whatever they wish, but they cannot turn the Believers away from the path of faith.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. To Allah belongs the pure and sincere religion. The principle of Tawhid and its benefits.  The evil of Shirk and its consequences.
  2. The reward of those who are steadfast in their faith.
  3. The perfect guidance of the Qur'an.  It is straight without any crookedness.
  4. Allah is sufficient for the Prophet.  The rejecters will be abased.
  5. The futility of Shirk and its evil consequences.
  6. Allah's mercy is available for all.
  7. Ye ignorant people, do you invite me to worship someone other than Allah?  The Judgment of Allah.
  8. The reward of Believers and the punishment of the unbelievers.

40. Surah al-Mu'min

This is a Makki Surah.  There are seven Surahs (al-Mu'min, HaMim al-Sajdah, al-Shura, al-Zukhruf, al-Dukhan, al-Jathiyah, al-Ahqaf) that begin with the word "HaMim".  Thus these seven Surahs are also called "al-Hawamim".  All these are Makki Surahs and they were revealed one after another after the previous Surah al-Zumar, in the middle Makkan period before the Hijrah to Abyssinia. This Surah has 85 verses in 9 sections.

These are Surahs of Da'wah, inviting people to believe in Allah, take advantage of the mercy of Allah.  There is solace and comfort in these Surahs for the Believers who were persecuted because of their faith and they are given the good news that the truth will prevail.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. The Qur'an is from Allah who is both Merciful and Severe in Punishment. Warnings to the non-believers and comfort to the believers.
  2. The failure of the disbelievers.  The Day of Judgment belongs to Allah.
  3. A lesson from the history of Prophet Moses -peace be upon him. Even the mighty Pharaoh and his army could not help him against the wrath of Allah.
  4. A Believer from the Pharaoh's people declared his faith.  His conversation with his people.
  5. The false leaders will take their people to hell. 
  6. Allah helps the Prophets and their followers.
  7. The Glory of Allah. Allah has power over life and death.
  8. The fate of the un-believers will be bad.
  9. Take lessons from the past history.  After the judgment comes, repentance makes no difference.

41. Surah HaMim al-Sajdah

This is a Makki Surah.  See the introduction to the previous Surah.  This Surah has 54 verses in 6 sections.

The subject matter of this Surah is Da'wah. It invites to the truth, gives warnings to those who reject the truth, and tells us that the appeal to the truth is within our nature.  It tells us also that the Believers receive strength from Allah's revelation.  The revelation gives life to those who were spiritually and morally dead at one time.  The Surah contains both good news and warnings.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Invitation to the truth of the Qur'an.  The Qur'an is a book that explains everything.
  2. Allah created the heaven and earth.  Warnings to those who turn away from Allah.
  3. Those who deny Allah, their own body will witness against them.
  4. The disbelievers’ plan to suppress the message of the Qur'an will fail.  Allah gives strength to the Believers.
  5. The best people are those who invite to Allah.  The effect of the revelation on the Believers. The signs of Allah.
  6. Allah gives time to people to repent.  What good or evil you do is for and against your own selves.  The truth will gradually succeed.

42. Surah al-Shura

This is a Makki Surah and it belongs to the group of seven HaMim Surahs that were revealed one after another in the middle Makkan period. This Surah has 53 verses in 5 sections.

The Surah emphasizes that the message of the Qur'an is from Allah Who revealed similar messages to other Prophets and Messengers.  The religion of Allah has been the same throughout history.  If Allah wanted He would have made all people into one Ummah, but He has given freedom to people to make their own choice by their free will. Allah will judge all people on the Day of Judgment. In the Surah it is also mentioned that the followers of this message are those who avoid major sins and who manage their affairs with mutual consultation.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Allah revealed His message to His Prophets.  The purpose of revelation is to warn people about the Day of Judgment.  Had Allah willed, He would have forced all people into one Ummah, but the wrong-does will see the consequences of their deeds.
  2. The judgment is in the hand of Allah. He gave the same religion to all His Prophets. Muslims must invite people to Allah.
  3. Allah deals justly with all people. Allah accepts the repentance.  Allah's mercy is manifest in the universe.
  4. Believers should avoid sins, be patient, work with each other in consultation and practice forgiveness.
  5. The Prophet guides to the right path, the path of Allah.

43. Surah al-Zukhruf

This is a Makki Surah and it is fourth in number among the group of Surahs that begin with the word HaMim.  It was revealed in the middle Makkan period. It has 89 verses in 7 sections.

The Surah tells us that the revelation is a mercy from Allah. Allah chooses whosoever He wills to give His revelation.  The worldly goods and riches do not necessarily mean that a person is best in the sight of Allah.  The real value comes from following the truth and righteousness.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. This revelation is given to people in Arabic so that they may understand. The revelation is a mercy from Allah.
  2. Shirk and blind following of ancestors are major problems of non-believers.
  3. Allah chooses the Prophets and Messengers according to His wisdom. The worldly riches do not mean much in the sight of Allah.
  4. Those who forget Allah come under the influence of the Satan.
  5. Pharaoh's response to Prophet Moses.  Allah's punishment came against Pharaoh and his people.
  6. Jesus' Message was also changed by some of his people.
  7. The Believers will succeed in the Hereafter.

44. Surah al-Dukhan

This is a Makki Surah and it is fifth in the number of Surahs that begin with HaMim.  It has 59 verses in 3 sections.

The Surah warns about the punishment of Allah. When the punishment will come then no one can avert it.  The division between the righteous and wicked in the Hereafter will be the final decision of Allah.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. The Qur'an is the book of warning.
  2. The Day of Judgment is a certainty.
  3. Allah will punish the wrongdoers and He shall reward the righteous.

45. Surah al-Jathiyah

This is a Makki Surah and it is the sixth among the Surahs that begin with HaMim.  It has 37 verses in 4 sections.

The Surah warns those who deny the Divine truth.  It talks about human arrogance and sinfulness. The judgment of Allah will cover all the people.  The nations will stand before him in the kneeling condition.            

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Allah's signs are all over in the universe and in our own soul. Those who deny the revelation of God will see punishment of Allah.
  2. Follow the clear path of truth.
  3. Some people have made their desires their god.  They also deny the Hereafter.
  4. People will stand before Allah on their knees.  Their record of deeds will be presented to them.

46. Surah al-Ahqaf

This is a Makki Surah. It is the 7th in the group of Surahs that begin with HaMim and it was revealed in the middle Makkan period.  This Surah has 35 verses in 4 sections.

The Surah gives warnings to those who deny the truth. When Allah's punishment comes then neither the sea, nor the dry land can protect.  There is a reference in this Surah to the people of 'Ad and Allah's punishment for their sins.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Allah sent down the Qur'an and He has created the heaven and earth.  The gods of Shirk have created nothing.  Is there any proof for Shirk? The truth of this revelation is manifest.
  2. The Qur'an verifies the previous revelations.
  3. The fate of 'Ad.
  4. Warnings to those who deny the truth.  A group of Jinn accept the message.  Be patient in giving the message of Allah.

47.  Surah Muhammad 

This is a Madani Surah and it was most probably revealed in the first year of Hijrah before the battle of Badr.  This Surah has 38 verses in 4 sections.

The Surah talks about the real struggle that will take place between the truth and falsehood.  In this struggle the truth will be victorious and the falsehood and its votaries will be utterly defeated.  The separation will take place between those who believe and those who will deny the truth.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Those who believe in Prophet Muhammad their sins are removed and their condition will improve.  The opponents of the truth will perish.
  2. Good news for the Believers. The Prophet is asked to pray for the Believers.
  3. The weak hearted and the blind are not able to see the truth.
  4. The real success.  Do not be intimidated, stand firm and struggle for the cause of Allah.

48.  Surah al-Fath

This is a Madani Surah. According to Sayyidna 'Umar -may Allah be pleased with him- this Surah was revealed when Muslims were returning from the Hudaibiyah.  The Treaty of Hudaibiyah took place in the 6th year of Hijrah. This Surah has 29 verses in 4 sections.

The Surah talks about the moral and physical victory of Islam over the forces of unbelief.  The hypocrites and disbelievers will be disappointed with this victory.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. The victory that came through the Treaty of Peace at Hudaibiyah.
  2. The hypocrites and their false excuses.
  3. Allah is pleased with the Believers who are with the Prophet.  Allah's promises for the Believers.
  4. Ultimate triumph of Islam.

49.  Surah al-Hujurat

This is a Madani Surah.  It was revealed around the 9th year of Hijrah when a large number of people entered in Islam.  Many delegations were also coming to visit Madinah to meet the Prophet -peace be upon him- and to learn about Islam.  The Surah has 18 verses in 2 sections.

The purpose of the Surah is to give Muslims teachings about the social manners.  How to respect their leader the Prophet -peace be upon him- and how to deal with each other.  It has comprehensive guidelines to make a peaceful and harmonious society.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Respect of the Prophet.  Proper manner of dealing with reports.  Relations among the Believers.
  2. Moral and ethical teachings to keep group harmony and solidarity. Relations with groups and tribes.  Faith is a favor of Allah to the Believers.

50.  Surah Qaf

This is a Makki Surah.  This and the following six Surahs belong to the early Makkan period.  This Surah has 45 verses in 3 sections.

The Surah emphasizes the theme of resurrection and the ultimate success of those who have faith in Allah and His Prophets.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Nature points out to the Resurrection.
  2. Allah is closer to us than our life-vein. The death, the end of the world, and the Resurrection.
  3. The Final judgment.

51. Surah al-Dhariyat

This is a Makki Surah.  It belongs to the early Makkan period.  This Surah has 60 verses in 3 sections.

The Surah gives the good news of the emergence of a new community. It also warns the opponents of the truth that their time is about to end and the judgment of Allah is near.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Falsehood is about to end.  The righteous shall be rewarded.  The character of the righteous people.
  2. Prophet Ibrahim and his angel visitors. The fate of the people of Prophet Lot.  Prophet Moses and the fate of Pharaoh. People of 'Ad and Thamud and the people of Prophet Noah -peace be upon them all.
  3. Hasten to Allah.  Do not associate anyone in the divinity of Allah. Remind, the reminding will help the Believers.  The Judgment of Allah is near.

52. Surah al-Tur

This is a Makki Surah revealed in the early Makkan period. It has 49 verses in 2 sections.

The Surah speaks about the mission of Prophet Muhammad -peace be upon him.  He came to warn people about the consequences of their denial of faith and deeds of injustice and indecency. Those who are in doubt of his message let them produce a similar message.  Let them also produce any proofs supporting their wrong beliefs.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Warnings about Allah's coming punishment for the disbelievers.  Reward for the Believers.
  2. Questions to the disbelievers about their false beliefs. What are the evidences and proofs of these false beliefs? 

53. Surah al-Najm

This is a Makki Surah revealed in the early Makkan period. It has 62 verses in 3 sections.

The Surah talks about the eminence of the Prophet -peace be upon him- with his Mi'raj and closeness to Allah.  It warns the disbelievers about the errors of their attitude towards the Qur'an and the Prophet of Allah.  Some of their wrong beliefs in the angels as daughters of God, intercession of the angels etc. are also mentioned.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. The Mi'raj experience of the Prophet Muhammad -peace be upon him. Gods or goddesses of the non-believers are mere conjectures and names without any reality.
  2. The angels are the servants of Allah.  No intercession can work against Allah. Allah is most forgiving, but He requires righteousness.
  3. Those who deny the truth they are standing against the power and majesty of Allah.

54. Surah al-Qamar

This is Makki Surah revealed in the early Makkan period.  It has 55 verses in 3 sections.

The Surah talks about the approaching Day of Judgment.  It describes some of the scenes of that Day.  It also tells us that Allah's judgment may come here and now.  There are references to the flood that came at the time of Prophet Noah, the punishment of the people of 'Ad, Thamud, People of Prophet Lot, the Pharaoh and his people.  It ends with the good news for the Believers who will be near their Lord in the gardens of bliss.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. The Day of Judgment is near. References to Prophet Noah, and to the tribe of 'Ad,
  2. References to the Thamud tribe, Prophet Lot and his people.
  3. Pharaoh and his arrogance.  The opponents in Makkah are told whether they think they are better or more powerful than those nations. The wrong doers did suffer the consequences of their evil deeds.

55. Surah al-Rahman

The opinions differ whether this is Makki or Madani Surah. According to some scholars this is a Makki Surah revealed during the early Makkan period.  The Surah has 78 verses in 3 sections.

The Surah clearly indicates that Prophet Muhammad is Allah’s Prophet and Messenger for both human beings as well as Jinns.  Allah's many blessings and favors are mentioned in this Surah.  Human beings and Jinn are invited to remember these favors and not to deny Allah's blessings. 31 times we are asked which of Allah’s favors are we going to deny.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. The various bounties of Allah.
  2. Everything is finite, but Allah is infinite. Everyone depends on Allah.  The warnings to the guilty.
  3. The rewards for the righteous.

56. Al-Waqi'ah

This is a Makki Surah revealed in the early Makkan period. This is the seventh Surah of the group of Surahs that began with Surah Qaf (no. 50). It completes the subject of death, resurrection and divine judgment. The Surah has 96 verses in 3 sections.

The Surah talks about the resurrection that will definitely take place. It is a fact undeniable. The human beings then will be in three different groups. The faithful are of two types: those who are the pioneers and are foremost in their faith and struggle in the path of Allah.  They are a large number from amongst the earlier community and a small from among the later generations. Then the rest of the people are believers and those who oppose the faith. Allah's rewards are for the faithful and his anger and chastisement is waiting for the opponents of faith.

The Surah then invites human beings to think about themselves and the things that they use daily and consider who created all these things. It talks about the Qur’an and its profound and consistent message and then finally reminds about death and the coming end of every being.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. The reality will come to pass. The humanity will be in three camps: people of the right hand, people of the left hand and the foremost in faith. The reward of the believers.
  2. The guilty and their punishment. Arguments about the Tawhid and Akhirah.
  3. The Qur’an and its consistent message. Reminder about death, divine  judgment and the reward and punishment.

57. Surah al-Hadid  

This is a Madani Surah revealed between the 4th and 5th year of Hijrah - time between the Battle of Badr and the Treaty of Hudaibiyah.  The Surah has 29 verses in 4 sections.

The Surah was revealed during the period when the non-believers attacked the tiny Islamic State from all sides.  It encourages Muslims to make sacrifices for their faith and be aware of the non-believers as well as the hypocrites in their own ranks.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. All knowledge and authority belongs to God.  Have faith in Allah's power, make sacrifice and give charity for the cause of truth.
  2. Light and Life are for the Believers. The disbelievers walk in darkness. Warning to those who refuse to acknowledge Allah.  Sincere in faith  are those who are willing to sacrifice and help the poor and needy..
  3. The life of this world is temporary.  Compete with each other in doing good things to receive the eternal reward from Allah.  Prophets were sent to establish justice with authority.
  4. References to Prophets Noah, Ibrahim, and Jesus -peace be upon them all. All Prophets preached same message, but some of their followers went into extremes. The Christians thus invented monasticism for themselves. It was not commanded by God. The Believers are asked to have faith and walk in the light of Allah.  The final success belongs to the Believers.

58. Surah al-Mujadalah

This is a Madani Surah.  It was revealed around the 5th year of Hijrah after the Battle of the Ditches. This Surah came most probably after the Surah al-Ahzab (33). It has 22 verses in 3 sections.

The Surah talks about a bad social custom by which husbands in pre-Islamic times used to oppress their wives.  Some one would call his wife "mother" and thus would separate from her, but would not give her the divorce.  Allah condemned this custom.  The Surah also speaks about the hypocrites and other non-Muslim groups in Madinah who were involved in spreading rumors against the Prophet -peace be upon him.  They are given warnings here and Muslims are urged to be alert and careful.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. The custom of Zihar is condemned. The rights of women should be protected.
  2. Allah is aware of the secret counsels of the hypocrites.  Believers should not involve in such activities. The rules of gatherings in Islam.
  3. Be aware of the internal enemies also.  Do not take as patrons those who are the enemies of Allah and His Messenger.

59. Surah al-Hashr

This is a Madani Surah revealed after the banishment of the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadhir from Madinah.  This took place after the Battle of Uhud in the 4th year of Hijrah.  This Surah has 24 verses in 3 sections.

The Surah talks about the banishment of Bani Nadhir and secret relations between them and the hypocrites of Madinah. It exhorts the Believers to be firm in their faith in Allah and gives some of the Beautiful Names of Allah.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. The Banishment of the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadhir.  The distribution of the spoils.
  2. The false promises of the hypocrites.
  3. The exhortation of the Believers to faith.  The Beautiful Names of Allah.

60. Surah al-Mumtahinah

This is a Madani Surah.  It was revealed after the Treaty of Hudaibiyah and before the conquest of Makkah in the 6th or 7th year of Hijrah.  It has 13 verses in 2 sections.

The Surah deals with the relations of Muslims with non-Muslims.  It tells Muslims on the one hand not to take the enemies of Allah as their allies and patrons, but on the other hand it tells them not to consider every non-Muslim as their enemy.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Do not take Allah's and your own enemies as your patrons and allies.
  2. It is allowed to have friendly relations with those non-Muslims who do not fight you in your religion and do not expel you from your lands. Some rules related to women who migrated to Madinah and their husbands had not accepted Islam.

61. Surah al-Saff

This is a Madani Surah revealed probably in the first or second year of Hijrah.  It has 14 verses in 2 sections.

The Surah exhorts Muslims to defend the truth.  It tells them that this may involve fighting the enemies who may come to attack Muslims. The Surah speaks about Prophet Moses and his difficulties with his own people.  He told them to follow Allah’s rules and they did not listen to him.  Then Allah sent Jesus among them and he also reminded them about Allah and gave them the good news of the coming of Prophet Muhammad -peace be upon all the prophets and Messengers of Allah. But they continue in their stubborn denial. The Surah ends with the good news that the true religion will prevail in the end and Allah will give it victory.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Struggle for the Truth. The light of Islam will shine more.
  2. The way of success for the believers is to struggle for the truth.

62. Surah al-Jumu'ah 

This is a Madani Surah. It seems that the first part of this Surah was revealed in the 7th year of Hijrah after the Battle of Khaybar and the second part was revealed soon after the Hijrah in the 1st year of Hijrah.  The Surah has 11 verses in 2 sections.

The Surah talks about the negligence of Bani Israel in obeying the commands of Allah and becoming too much involved in worldly matters. They only carried the Books of Allah, but failed to follow these books.  Muslims are urged to observe the Friday prayer and should not get involved in business so much as to neglect the remembrance of Allah.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Allah's favor upon Muslims that Allah sent His Prophet among them to teach them and to purify them.  Bani Israel neglected the commands of Allah.
  2. Muslims are exhorted to observe the Friday prayers and always remember Allah.

63. Surah al-Munafiqun

This is a Madani Surah revealed around the 6th year of Hijrah.  It has 11 verses in 2 sections.

The Surah deals with the phenomenon of hypocrisy. It criticizes hypocrisy and condemns the hypocrites. It also exhorts the Believers to be sincere in their faith and make charity.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Criticism of hypocrisy.
  2. Exhortation of the Believers.

64. Surah al-Taghabun

This is a Madani Surah revealed during the early Madinian period.  It has 18 verses in 2 sections.

The Surah invites to faith, obedience of Allah and good morals. It warns about the evil consequences of misdeeds and about the coming of the Day of Judgment when the real success or loss will be manifest.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. Allah created human beings, some among them are believers and some non-believers.  He knows everything. He sent His Prophets to warn and remind.  Remember the Day of Judgment.
  2. Believe in Allah, purify your motives and be generous in giving for the cause of Allah.

65. Surah al-Talaq

This is a Madani Surah revealed in the 6th year of Hijrah.  It has 12 verses in 2 sections.

This and the following Surah al-Tahrim speak about family rules.  The spouses should follow Allah’s rules whether they have disagreement with each other or they love each other. In this Surah the proper rules of divorce are given.  Do not just say the words of divorce and separate yourself from your wives, but give them their rights. It also reminds the Believers to obey Allah and His Messenger.  Those who disobey Allah are warned the consequences of their disobedience.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. The Rules of Divorce.
  2. Warning to those who disobey the commands of Allah.

66. Surah al-Tahrim

This is a Madani Surah revealed around the 7th year of Hijrah. It has 12 verses in 2 sections.

The Surah tells the spouses not to ignore Allah’s rules in their love for each other.  It refers to an incident that took place between the Prophet and his wives.  This incident is used to instruct the Believers to understand the nature of Halal and Haram and to understand that the success and salvation in the Hereafter will not be based on family or tribal relations, but purely on faith in Allah.

Introduction to the Sections

  1. The rules of Allah are supreme. Save yourselves and your families from fire.
  2. Allah requires true repentance. Salvation is not based on family or tribal relations but on Iman and Taqwa.

Note:

The following Surahs from 67-114 are all Makki Surahs except Surah 110 (Surah al-Nasr). This was revealed in Madinh and according to some authorities it is the last Surah revealed to Prophet –peace be upon him- and it was revealed in Mina during his Last Pilgrimage.  The emphasis in these Surahs is on faith and Allah's message that has come through His last Prophet Muhammad.  Although these Surahs were revealed at the very beginning of the Prophet's work in Makkah, they contain many prophecies, sometime plainly and sometime in a metaphorical language, about the success of the truth.


67. Surah al-Mulk

This Surah has 30 verses in 2 sections.  It talks about the greatness of Allah and beautiful universe that He has created.  It reminds people that if they consider the laws of universe and travel in the land with open eyes, they will indeed see that this whole kingdom belongs to Allah and He controls everything.


68. Surah al-Qalam

This Surah has 52 verses in 2 sections.  The Surah tells us that the message of the Prophet is not the talk of a madman.  The writings of all scriptures bear testimony to the truth of this message.  It urges people to be charitable and help the poor and needy.  The story of the people of a garden is mentioned who wished to deny the charity to the poor and they suffered the consequence in losing everything. The Surah ends with the story of Prophet Jonah -peace be upon him. It urges the Prophet and through him his followers to continue this mission and not to give up in frustration.  The mission of Islam is for the whole world.


69. Surah al-Haqqah

This Surah has 52 verses in 2 sections.  The Surah tells about the fate of Thamud, 'Ad, Pharaoh, other overthrown towns, the flood that came in the time of Prophet Noah. It talks about the reward of the faithful and the punishment of disbelievers. At the end it reminds the people that this message is not poetry of a poet and something made up by the Prophet himself, it is the revelation of the Lord of the worlds.


70.  Surah al-Ma'arij

The Surah has 44 verses in 2 sections.  It talks about the ways of the ascent of the Believers.  The rise of truth will be gradual, but it is sure. The Surah talks about the problems of human beings in general, but those who believe their character is different. It warns about the coming doom of the disbelievers.


71. Surah Nooh

This Surah has 28 verses in 2 sections.  This Surah talks about the preaching of Prophet Noah and then his prayer for the destruction of the disbelievers.  Thus Allah's wrath came upon them and they were all destroyed in a flood.


72. Surah al-Jinn  

This Surah has 28 verses in 2 sections.  The Surah gives assurance that the message of Allah will be accepted.  It talks about some Jinn (a hidden creation) who accepted the message and in this way gives a prediction that if the present people deny the message, then others, yet hidden, but they will accept this message.


73.  Surah al-Muzzammil

This Surah has 20 verses in 2 sections.  The Surah emphasized prayers and the reading of the Qur'an in prayers.  It tells the Prophet and all those who stand to preach the message of Allah to take their strength from the word of Allah.  Read the Qur'an and spend your wealth in the path of Allah.


74.  Surah al-Muddathir

This Surah has 56 verses in 2 sections.  The subject of this Surah is da'wah of Islam.  The Prophet and his followers are told to stand up to remove the evils and vices from the society.  It also gives the warnings of the coming doom for those who deny the truth.


75.  Surah al-Qiyamah

This Surah has 40 verses in2 sections.  The Surah talks about the spiritual resurrection of the soul when it becomes aware of its Lord and it speaks about the physical resurrection that will take place at the end of the world.


76.  Surah al-Dahr

This Surah has 31 verses in 2 sections.  This Surah is also called al-Insan.  It speaks about the ways human being can attain growth and spiritual development.  The rewards of the Believers and the character of the Believers are also mentioned.


77. Surah al-Mursalat

This Surah has 50 verses in 2 sections.  In the previous Surah it was mentioned how the Believers receive the moral and spiritual perfection, now in this Surah it is mentioned how the rejecters of the truth have their downfall and are destroyed.


78. Surah al-Naba'

40 verses in 2 sections.  The Surah gives an important news or message.  It tells us that the Day of Decision is coming. This beautiful and orderly universe is pointing to the Day of Decision. Allah will bring all people to judgment.  The wicked will be thrown in the hell and the righteous will receive their reward from Allah.


79. Surah al-Nazi'at

46 verses in 2 sections. It speaks about Allah's angels who take the souls at the time of death. As Allah has power to take away the souls, as He has created the whole universe, He also has the power to resurrect people after their death. The story of Prophet Moses and Pharaoh is mentioned to warn the people about the consequences of arrogant pride which leads to the denial of the truth.


80. Surah 'Abasa

42 verses in 1 section. The Surah begins with the incident of a blind man (Abdullah ibn Umm Maktum) who came to the Prophet to seek knowledge, while the chiefs of Makkah were denying the message. It talks about the greatness of Allah's message.  Those who will accept this message they will benefit from it.  But those who deny this message they are bringing harm to their own selves.


81. Surah al-Takwir

29 verses in 1 section. The Surah talks about the end of the world.  In a very powerful way, it gives us some of the scenes of the Last Day. All the natural power as well as the human power and authority will come to an end.  This is a serious message not the words of a madman.  The purpose of this message is to remind people to become morally upright.


82. Surah al-Infitar

19 verses in 1 section.  The Surah reminds human being that Allah has given them a wonderful proportionate shape, but they and the whole universe are totally dependent upon Allah.  The creation has a purpose and the Day of Judgment will come.


83. Surah al-Mutaffifin 

36 verses in 1 section.  The Surah warns those who commit fraud in business. It reminds about honest dealings. The righteous will prosper. Allah has the record of every person.


84. Surah al-Inshiqaq

25 verse in 1 section. This Surah tells us that this world has no permanence.  It also speaks about the record of deeds and the rewards of the righteous and the punishment of the wicked.  It reminds people to pay attention to the Qur'an.


85. Surah al-Buruj

22 verses in 1 section. The Surah speaks about the persecution of the Believers.  Allah watches over His own people and He will bring His enemies to judgment. The Surah warns the opponents of this message. Their end might be the same as that of many nations before who denied Allah's message and persecuted the Believers.


86. Surah al-Tariq

17 verses in 1 section.  Every thing in this universe is working under the protection and supervision of the great Keeper.  The creation of human beings as well as the creation of this universe is not a joke. The creation is a serious work of Allah and so is His word, the Qur'an.


87.  Surah al-A'la

19 verses in 1 section.  The Surah speaks about the praise of Allah the Most High. He created everything. He created the human being and gave him capacity to make progress. Man can make progress if he obeys Allah's rules. The Qur'an is the message from Allah and He will guard it. The Prophet should continue giving the message to others. Those who accept it will benefit from it, but those who will reject it they will be the losers.  It talks about the 'Akhirah and that this message is the same that was given to Prophets Ibrahim and Moses -peace be upon them.


88. Surah al-Ghashiyah

26 verses in 1 section.  The Surah talks about the coming calamity that will cover everything.  The humanity will be divided into two groups: the frightened, tired and exhausted group, and the joyful and happy group.  Then the attention is drawn to this wonderful that Allah has created.  The Prophet is told to remind people. His mission is to remind only, not to impose the message. Allah will make the final judgment.


89. Surah al-Fajr

30 verses in 1 section. The Surah talks about the judgment of Allah: the reward and punishment that will take place in the hereafter.


90. Surah al-Balad

20 verses in 1 section.  The Surah begins with a reference to the city of Makkah where the Prophet was going through an experience of pain and suffering due to the denial of his people.  It talks about the different stages of human life.  This world is not the place of real comfort. Here is the test of human beings to do good deeds and then the final judgment will be in the Hereafter.


91. Surah al-Shams

15 verses in 1 section.  The Surah tells us that as there is a contrast between sun and moon, night and day, heaven and earth, so there is also a big difference between good and evil.


92. Surah al-Layl

21 verses in 1 section.  It has basically the same theme as the previous Surah, but it tells us about the two ways of life: good way and evil way and the consequences of both ways.


93. Surah al-Dhuha

11 verses in 1 section.  This Surah gives the message of hope and consolation.  It reminds about Allah's blessings and the way the Believers should take these blessings.


94. Surah Alam Nashrah

8 verses in 1 section.  The Surah tells us that the Believers should not give up under difficulties and stress. There will be ease after difficulties.


95. Surah al-Tin

8 verses in 1 section. Four historic event are mentioned here and the conclusion is drawn that Allah's judgment will come.


96. Surah al-'Alaq

19 verses in 1 section.  The first five verses are among the first that were revealed to the Prophet -peace be upon him- in the cave of Hira.  Then the rest of the Surah was revealed when the message was presented to the people of Makkah and they began threatening the Prophet. The Surah speaks about the humble beginning of human beings, but the high position that they can receive if they follow the message of Allah.


97. Surah al-Qadr

5 verses in 1 section. The Surah talks about the majesty and glory of the Qur'an and the time in which  the Qur'an was revealed.


98. Surah al-Bayyinah

8 verses in 1 section.  The Surah tells us that Prophet Muhammad came with a clear message and a Divine Book.  This Book (the Qur’an) contains the basic message of all the Prophets of Allah. It also draws attention to the different ends of those who follow the right path and those who turn away from the truth


99. Surah al-Zilzal  

8 verses in 1 section.  This Surah talks about the life after death and that all deeds will be exposed on the Day of Judgment.


100. Surah al-'Adiyat

11 verses in 1 section.  The Surah tells us the ungratefulness of man and where it leads him.  It describes the wild and unruly life style of the Arabs before Islam.  It also reminds us that Allah is aware of all the hidden secrets of human souls and He will expose them on the Day of Judgment.


101. Surah al-Qari’ah 

11 Verses in 1 section.  The Surah gives the warning about the Day of Judgment.  It will be the day of great clamor. People will be scattered and the mountains will crumble. Only those whose balance will be weighty will prosper.


102. Surah al-Takathur

8 Verses in 1 section.  The Surah talks about the evil consequences of materialism and this worldliness.


103. Surah al-‘Asr

3 Verses in 1 section.  The Surah tells us that human beings are generally losers.  Then it says what is the way to success and salvation.


104. Surah al-Humazah

9 Verses in 1 section.  The Surah talks about some of the moral problems that affect the wealthy and then it gives them warnings of the consequences of these evils.


105. Surah al-Fil

5 Verses in 1 section.  The Surah reminds about the event when the Ka’bah was attacked by an army from the Southern part of Arabia, but Allah destroyed this army. It is the same God who protected the Ka’bah, His message is now presented by Prophet Muhammad –peace be upon him.


106.  Surah Quraish

4 Verses in 1 section.  It reminded the people of Makkah that it was Allah who gave them honor and prestige among other tribes due to His House, the Ka’bah, so why not worship Him and obey His command.  It is similarly a reminder to others to worship Allah who provides everything.


107. Surah al-Ma’un

7 Verses in 1 section.  Religion means social service, helping the poor and needy.  The Surah tells us that the true belief in God and the last day create a kind and compassionate character.


108. Surah al-Kawthar

3 Verses in 1 section.  The Surah gives good news and comfort that Allah’s message will prevail and the enemies of the truth will be the losers.


109. Surah al-Kafirun

6 Verses in 1 section.  The Surah tells us that there cannot be any compromise in the matters of faith and worship. People are free to follow whatever religion they want, but the truth and falsehood cannot be mixed together.


110. Surah al-Nasr

3 Verses in 1 section. This is a Madani Surah and according to most of the authorities this is the last Surah that was revealed to the Prophet –peace be upon him. The Surah reminds about the attitude of the Believer in the situation of success.  One should be thankful to Allah and seek His forgiveness for any shortcomings or mistakes.


111. Surah al-Lahab

5 Verses in 1 section’.  This Surah was revealed to condemn the behavior of one of the relatives of the Prophet who stood against his message.  The Surah gives a warning that those who oppose the message of Allah, they will be severely punished, regardless whether they are of the family of the Prophet or not.


112. Surah al-Ikhlas

4 Verses in 1 section. This is a great Surah of Tawhid.  It speaks about the oneness of Allah.


113. Surah al-Falaq

5 Verses in 1 section.  The Surah reminds us that evil is lurching everywhere and any things can become harmful. One should always be conscious, do right things and seek Allah’s protection.


114. Surah al-Nas

6 verse in 1 section.  The Surah tells us that Satan is always against the human beings and he puts wrong suggestions in their minds.  We should seek Allah’s protection from Satan and his whisperings. This is a very appropriate ending for the Book of Allah. The Book of God is to provide protection from all evil and success under the guidance of Allah.

 

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