A comparison of the Islamic and Christian views of Jesus

The Hagia Sophia: A Byzantine church later converted into a mosque.

The person of Jesus or Isa in Arabic (peace be upon him) is of great significance in both Islam and Christianity. However, there are differences in terms of beliefs about the nature and life occurrences of this noble Messenger.

Source of information about Jesus in Islam

Most of the Islamic information about Jesus is actually found in the Quran.

The Quran was revealed by God to Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him), and memorized and written down in his lifetime. Today, anyone who calls him or herself a Muslim believes in the complete authenticity of the Quran as the original revealed guidance from God.

Source of information about Jesus in Christianity

Christians take their information about Jesus from the Bible, which includes the Old and New Testaments.

These contain four biblical narratives covering the life and death of Jesus. They have been written, according to tradition, respectively by Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. They are placed at the beginning of the New Testament and comprise close to half of it.

Encyclopedia Britannica notes that none of the sources of his life and work can be traced to Jesus himself; he did not leave a single known written word. Also, there are no contemporary accounts written of his life and death. What can be established about the historical Jesus depends almost without exception on Christian traditions, especially on the material used in the composition of the Gospels of Mark, Matthew, and Luke, which reflect the outlook of the later church and its faith in Jesus.

Below are the views of Islam and Christianity based on primary source texts and core beliefs.

ISLAM

1. Do Muslims believe he was a Messenger of One God? YES

Belief in all of the Prophets and Messengers of God is a fundamental article of faith in Islam. Thus, believing in Prophets Adam, Jesus, Moses, and Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon them) is a requirement for anyone who calls him or herself a Muslim. A person claiming to be a Muslim who, for instance, denies the Messengership of Jesus, is not considered a Muslim.

The Quran says in reference to the status of Jesus as a Messenger:

"The Messiah (Jesus), son of Mary, was no more than a Messenger before whom many Messengers have passed away; and his mother adhered wholly to truthfulness, and they both ate food (as other mortals do). See how We make Our signs clear to them; and see where they are turning away!" (Quran 5:75).

2. Do Muslims believe he was born of a Virgin Mother? YES

Like Christians, Muslims believe Mary, Maria in Spanish, or Maryam as she is called in Arabic, was a chaste, virgin woman, who miraculously gave birth to Jesus.

"Relate in the Book the story of Mary, when she withdrew from her family, to a place in the East. She screened herself from them; then We sent to her Our spirit (angel Gabriel) and he appeared before her as a man in all respects. She said: I seek refuge from you in God Most Gracious (come not near) if you do fear God. He said: Nay, I am only a Messenger from your Lord, to announce to you the gift of a pure son. She said: How shall I have a son, when no man has ever touched me, and I am not unchaste? He said: So it will be, your Lord says: ‘That is easy for Me; and We wish to appoint him as a sign unto men and a Mercy from Us': It was a matter so decreed" (Quran 19:16-21).

3. Do Muslims believe Jesus had a miraculous birth? YES

The Quran says:

"She (Mary) said: ‘O my Lord! How shall I have a son when no man has touched me.' He (God) said: ‘So (it will be) for God creates what He wills. When He has decreed something, He says to it only: ‘Be!'- and it is" (3:47).

It should also be noted about his birth that:

"Verily, the likeness of Jesus in God's Sight is the likeness of Adam. He (God) created him from dust, then (He) said to him: ‘Be!'-and he was" (Quran 3:59).

4. Do Muslims believe Jesus spoke in the cradle? YES

"Then she (Mary) pointed to him. They said: ‘How can we talk to one who is a child in the cradle?' He (Jesus) said: ‘Verily! I am a slave of God, He has given me the Scripture and made me a Prophet; " (19:29-30).

5. Do Muslims believe he performed miracles? YES

Muslims, like Christians believe Jesus performed miracles. But these were performed by the will and permission of God, Who has power and control over all things.

"Then will God say: ‘O Jesus the son of Mary! recount My favor to you and to your mother. Behold! I strengthened you with the Holy Spirit (the angel Gabriel) so that you did speak to the people in childhood and in maturity. Behold! I taught you the Book and Wisdom, the Law and the Gospel. And behold: you make out of clay, as it were, the figure of a bird, by My leave, and you breathe into it, and it becomes a bird by My leave, and you heal those born blind, and the lepers by My leave. And behold! you bring forth the dead by My leave. And behold! I did restrain the children of Israel from (violence to you) when you did show them the Clear Signs, and the unbelievers among them said: ‘This is nothing but evident magic' (5:110).

6. Do Muslims believe in the Trinity? NO

Muslims believe in the Absolute Oneness of God, Who is a Supreme Being free of human limitations, needs and wants. He has no partners in His Divinity. He is the Creator of everything and is completely separate from His creation.

God says in the Quran regarding the Trinity:

"People of the Book (Jews and Christians)! Do not exceed the limits in your religion, and attribute to God nothing except the truth. The Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, was only a Messenger of God, and His command that He conveyed unto Mary, and a spirit from Him. So believe in God and in His Messengers, and do not say: ‘God is a Trinity.' Give up this assertion; it would be better for you. God is indeed just One God. Far be it from His glory that He should have a son. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and in the earth. God is sufficient for a guardian" (Quran 4:171).

7. Do Muslims believe that Jesus was the son of God? NO

"Say: "God is Unique! God, the Source [of everything]. He has not fathered anyone nor was He fathered, and there is nothing comparable to Him!" (Quran 112:1-4).

The Quran also states:

"Such was Jesus, the son of Mary; it is a statement of truth, about which they vainly dispute. It is not befitting to the majesty of God, that He should beget a son. Glory be to Him! When He determines a matter, He only says to it, ‘Be' and it is" (Quran 19:34-35).

8. Do Muslims believe Jesus was killed on the cross then resurrected? NO

"“They did not kill him, nor did they crucify him, but they thought they did.” (Quran 4:156) “God lifted him up to His presence. God is Almighty, All-Wise” (Quran 4:157) .

CHRISTIANITY

1. Do Christians believe Jesus was a human being and Messenger of God? YES & NO

With the exception of Unitarian Christians, who like all the early followers of Jesus, still do not believe in the Trinity, most Christians now believe in the Divinity of Jesus, which is connected to the belief in Trinity. They say he is the second member of the Triune God, the Son of the first part of the Triune God, and at the same time "fully" God in every respect. 

2. Do Christians believe he was born of a Virgin Mother? YES

A chaste and pious human woman who gave birth to Jesus Christ, the second member of the Trinity, the Son of God, and at the same time "fully" God Almighty in every respect.

Christians believe however, that while she was a virgin, she was married to a man named Joseph (Bible: Matthew:1:18). According to Matthew 1:25, Joseph "kept her a virgin until she gave birth to a Son; and he called His name Jesus".

3. Do Christians believe he had a miraculous birth? YES

"Now the birth of Jesus Christ was as follows. When His mother Mary had been betrothed to Joseph, before they came together, she was found to be with child by the Holy Spirit" (Bible: Matthew 1:18)

4. Do Christians believe he performed miracles? YES

"And now, Lord, look upon their threats, and grant to thy servants to speak thy word with all boldness, while thou stretches out thy hand to heal, and sign and wonders are performed through the name of thy holy servant Jesus (Bible: Acts 4:30).

Christians believe that Jesus performed these miracles because he was the Son of God as well as the incarnation of God. 

5. Do Christians believe in the Trinity? YES

With the exception of the Unitarian Christians, who do not believe in the Divinity of Christ, the Trinity, according to the Catholic encyclopedia, is the term used for the central doctrine of the Christian religion. The belief is that in the unity of the Godhead there are Three Persons, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. These three Persons or beings are distinct from each another, while being similar in character: uncreated and omnipotent.

The First Vatican Council has explained the meaning to be attributed to the term mystery in theology. It lays down that a mystery is a truth which we are not merely incapable of discovering apart from Divine Revelation, but which, even when revealed, remains "hidden by the veil of faith and enveloped, so to speak, by a kind of darkness" (Const., "De fide. cath.", iv). The First Vatican Council further defined that the Christian Faith contains mysteries strictly so called (can. 4). All theologians admit that the doctrine of the Trinity is of the number of these. The Catholic Encyclopedia notes that of all revealed truths, this is the most impenetrable to reason.

6. Do Christians believe that Jesus was the son of God? YES

"For God so loved the world that He gave His only Son that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have eternal life. For God sent the Son into the world, not to condemn the world, but that the world might be saved through Him (Bible: John 3:16).

However, it is interesting to note that the term "son of God" is used in other parts of the Bible to refer to Adam (Bible: Luke 3:38), Israel (Bible: Exodus 4:22) and David (Bible: Psalms 2:7) as well. The creatures of God are usually referred to in the Bible as children of God.

The role of Paul of Tarsus in shaping this belief and the belief in Trinity

The notion of Jesus as son of God is something that was established under the influence of Paul of Tarsus (originally named Saul), who had been an enemy of Jesus, but later changed course and joined the disciples after the departure of Jesus.

Later, however, he initiated a number of changes into early Christian teachings, in contradiction, for instance, to disciples like Barnabas, who believed in the Oneness of God and who had actually lived and met with Jesus.

Paul is considered by a number of Christian scholars to be the father of Christianity due to his additions of the following ideas:

  • that Jesus is the son of God,
  • the concept of Atonement,
  • the renunciation of the Law of the Torah.

Paul did these things in hopes of winning over the Gentiles (non-Jewish people). His letters are another of the primary sources of information on Jesus according to the Christian tradition.

The original followers of Prophet Jesus opposed these blatant misrepresentations of the message of Jesus. They struggled to reject the notion of the Divinity of Jesus for close to 200 years.

One person who was an original follower of Jesus was Barnabas. He was a Jew born in Cyrus and a successful preacher of the teachings of Jesus. Because of his closeness to Jesus, he was an important member of the small group of disciples in Jerusalem who had had gathered together following the disappearance of Jesus.

The question of Jesus's nature, origin and relationship with God was not raised amongst Barnabas and the small group of disciples. Jesus was considered a man miraculously endowed by God. Nothing in the words of Jesus or the events in his life led them to modify this view.

The Gospel of Barnabas was accepted as a Canonical Gospel in the Churches of Alexandria till 325 CE Iranaeus (130-200) wrote in support of pure monotheism and opposed Paul for injecting into Christianity doctrines of the pagan Roman religion and Platonic philosophy. He quoted extensively from the Gospel of Barnabas in support of his views. This indicates that the Gospel of Barnabas was in circulation in the first and second centuries of Christianity. 

In 325 (CE), a council of Christian leaders met at Nicaea and made Paul's beliefs officially part of Christian doctrine. It also ordered that all original Gospels in Hebrew script which contradicted Paul's beliefs should be destroyed. An edict was issued that anyone in possession of these Gospels would be put to death.

The Gospel of Barnabas has miraculously survived though.

7. Do Christians believe he was killed on the cross? YES

This is a core Christian belief and it relates to the concept of atonement. According to this belief, Jesus died to save mankind from sin. However, this is not stated explicitly in the four gospels which form the primary source texts of Christianity. It is found, however, in Romans 6:8,9.

Christians believe Jesus was spat on, cut, humiliated, kicked, striped and finally hung up on the cross to endure a slow and painful death.

According, to Christian belief, the original sin of Adam and Eve of eating from the forbidden tree was so great that God could not forgive it by simply willing it, rather it was necessary to erase it with the blood of a sinless, innocent Jesus.

Resurrection

The four Gospels and the Epistles of St. Paul are the main sources of Christianity which discuss the Resurrection of Jesus after his crucifixion. According to St. Matthew, Jesus appeared to the holy women, and again on a mountain in Galilee. Mark's Gospel tells a different story: Jesus was seen by Mary Magdalene, by the two disciples at Emmaus, and the Eleven before his Ascension into heaven.

Luke's Gospel says Jesus walked with the disciples to Emmaus, appeared to Peter and to the assembled disciples in Jerusalem. In John's Gospel, Jesus appeared to Mary Magdalene, to the ten Apostles on Easter Sunday, to the Eleven a week later, and to seven disciples at the Sea of Tiberias.

Another account of the resurrection by St. Paul is found in Bible: Corinthians 15: 3-8.

According to Christian belief, Resurrection is a manifestation of God's justice, Who exalted Christ to a life of glory, as Christ had humbled himself unto death (Phil., 2: 8-9). This event also completes the mystery of Christian salvation and redemption. The death of Jesus frees believers from sin, and with his resurrection, he restores to them the most important privileges lost by sin (Bible: Romans 4:25).

More importantly, the belief in the resurrection of Jesus indicates Christian acknowledgment of Christ as the immortal God, the cause of believers' own resurrection (Bible: I Corinthians 4: 21; Phil., 3:20-21), as well as the model and the support of a new life of grace (Bible: Romans 4: 4-6; 9-11).

 

Photo Attribution: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hagia_Sophia_weekend.jpg

Comments

If you take the time and research about Islam I am sure You will find the muslims Follows Jesus Peace be upon him more than the Christians.
As Muslims we have no choice. We had said in many words:
” WE BELIEVE IN ONE CREATOR, WE BELIEVE IN ALL HIS PROPHETS, WE BELIEVE, THAT JESUS (peace be upon him) WAS ONE OF THE MIGHTIEST PROPHETS OF GOD, THAT HE WAS THE MESSIAH AS WELL AS THE WORD OF GOD,(Be) THAT HE WAS BORN MIRACULOUSLY- WITHOUT ANY MALE INTERVENTION (which many modern-day Christians do not believe today),THAT HE GAVE LIFE TO THE DEAD BY GOD’S PERMISSION, AND THAT HE HEALED THOSE BORN BLIND AND THE LEPERS BY GOD’S PERMISSION.”
1) Believe in one true God, not the concept of Trinity.
(Deuteronomy 6:4-5) “Hear O Israel: the Lord our God is one Lord, and the Lord your God is to be loved with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength.”
(Mark 12:28-30) …“Which law is the first of all?” Jesus said in answer, “The first is, Give ear, O Israel:The Lord our God is one Lord; and you are to have love for the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.”

(Holy Quran 112:1-4) ‘Say: He is Allah, the One and Only; Allah, the Eternal, Absolute; He begets not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him.
(Holy Quran 2:163) ‘And your God is One God. There is no God but He, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.’

2) Confess that Jesus Christ (peace be upon him) is the Messiah, Prophet and messenger of God, BUT NOT GOD.
(John 5:30) ‘I (Jesus) BY MYSELF CAN DO NOTHING – AS I HEAR I JUDGE, AND MY JUDGMENT IS JUST, BECAUSE I SEEK NOT MY WILL, BUT THE WILL OF THY WHO HAS SENT ME’.

(John 17:3) ‘THIS IS ETERNAL LIFE, SO THAT YOU MAY KNOW THERE IS ONE TRUE GOD, AND JESUS CHRIST, WHO THOU HAS SENT.’

(Mathew 19:16-17) ‘One of the persons approaches Jesus, and says ‘GOOD MASTER, what good things shall I do, that I shall attain eternal life.’ And Jesus said unto him, ‘WHY DO YOU CALL ME GOOD? For there is NONE GOOD, EXCEPT ONE, THAT IS GOD – And if you want to enter life, KEEP THE COMMANDMENTS’.

(Holy Quran 4:157) ‘That they said (in boast), “We killed Christ Jesus the son of Mary, the Messenger of Allah,” but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but so it was made to appear to them, and those WHO DIFFER THEREIN ARE FULL OF DOUBTS, WITH NO (CERTAIN) KNOWLEDGE, BUT ONLY CONJECTURE TO FOLLOW, FOR OF A SURETY THEY KILLED HIM NOT.’

3) Perform prostration (as-sujud) in their prayers.
(Exodus 34:8) ‘THEN MOSES QUICKLY WENT DOWN ON HIS FACE IN WORSHIP.’

(Joshua 5:14) ‘…THEN JOSHUA, FALLING DOWN WITH HIS FACE TO THE EARTH IN WORSHIP…’

(Matthew 26:39) ‘AND HE (JESUS) WENT FORWARD A LITTLE AND FALLING DOWN ON HIS FACE IN PRAYER…’

(Holy Quran 32:15) ‘Only those believe in Our Signs, who, when they are recited to them, fall down in PROSTRATION, AND CELEBRATE THE PRAISES OF THEIR LORD, NOR ARE THEY (EVER) PUFFED UP WITH PRIDE.’

(Holy Quran 22:77) ‘O YOU WHO BELIEVE! BOW DOWN, PROSTRATE YOURSELVES, AND ADORE YOUR LORD; AND DO GOOD; THAT YOU MAY PROSPER.’

4) Wearing hijab is an obligation for women
(1 Corinthians 11:6-10) ‘FOR IF A WOMAN IS NOT VEILED, LET HER HAIR BE CUT OFF; BUT IF IT IS A SHAME TO A WOMAN TO HAVE HER HAIR CUT OFF, LET HER BE VEILED.’

(Holy Quran 33:59) ‘O Prophet! Say to your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers that they let down upon them their over-garments (veil); this will be more proper, that they may be known, and thus they will not be given trouble; and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.’

5) PORK IS PROHIBITED TO EAT
(Deuteronomy 14:8) ‘AND THE PIG IS UNCLEAN TO YOU, because though it has a division in the horn of its foot, its food does not come back; their flesh may not be used for food or their dead bodies touched by you.’

(Holy Quran 5:3) ‘FORBIDDEN TO YOU IS THAT WHICH DIES OF ITSELF, AND BLOOD, AND FLESH OF SWINE…’
May God bless you with the hunger for knowledge and the ability to accept the truth once the knowledge has come to you.
So don’t trust me—trust Our Creator. Read the Quran, read books and study good websites.
But whatever you do, get started, take it seriously, and Pray For Our Creator To Guide You.
Your Life May Not Depend On It, But Your Soul Most Definitely Does.
Read The Last & Final Testament Of God The Quran On Line With An Open Mind
Read about Jesus(Peace be upon him) Quran Chapter 3:33-84 Chapter 5:72-78 and Chapter 19 Surah Maryam
http://www.noblequran.com/translation/
Read on line Books( Islam, Muhammad, Jesus, Mary etc.)
http://www.islamhouse.com/pg/9661/books/1
http://www.islamicbook.ws/english/english-034.pdf

May the light of truth shine in your heart and mind. May it lead you to peace and certitude in this life and eternal bliss in here after.
Whenever you want to pursue the truth and verify anything you hear about Islam, I urge you to please use the only valid and divine source of Islam, Quran.

Location

London Uk

Pam, the biggest tragedy is that Christians believe that Muslims worship Mohammed. A verse which every Muslim recites in his prayers is chapter 112 (1-4) which says "Say: He is Allah, the One and Only;
Allah, the Eternal, Absolute;
He begetteth not, nor is He begotten;
And there is none like unto Him."

Location

Manchester

When some body Join Islam He or she has to Declare That
There Is No deity Worthy Of Worshipped except Allah AND
Muhammad Is The Servant and Messenger Of God
That says All and it is The Same Statement as Jesus did in the New testament the Gospel According to John, 17:3, Jesus declares that the ONE HE PRAYED TO IS THE ONLY TRUE GOD.
3 And this is life eternal, that THEY MIGHT KNOW THEE THE ONLY TRUE GOD, AND JESUS CHRIST, WHOM THOU HAST SENT. (John 17:3)

Location

London U.k.

We know that the Jesus the muslims believe in will return to as an enforcer for Allah to cause Christians (infidels) and other non-muslims to turn to Allah. So, we can not say we believe in the same Jesus. Their characteristics are absolutely different...as day is from night. We also cannot say we believe in the same God, because muslims believe Allah had NO son, whilst christians believe YHWH had a son. It is just the way it is and it is wrong for both muslims and christians to site any closeness in belief.

Location

zambie

Matthew 10:34 "Do not assume that I have come to bring peace to the earth; I have not come to bring peace, but a sword."

No closeness in belief? Please explain. The last time I knew, Muslims believe to be descendants of Ishmael, whereas, Jews and Judeo-Christians believe to be the descendants of Isaac. Both sons of Abraham (or Ibrahim) "The Father of Nations" a.k.a. "The Patriarch." Both believe in the same God of Abraham.

Location

U.S.

Dear Dave

Muslims don't consider Christians as infidels but in the holy Quran we are advised to address Christians as people of the book. Muslims believe that Jesus did not die on the cross as it would represent humiliation of a great messenger of god and victory of evil, we believe that he was lifted to the heavens and shall come back to earth to conclude his mission on earth he shall live for 40 years and then shall die and will be buried next to the empty grave in medina next to the holy prophet of Islam

Location

Manchester

Dear friend thanks for the question. A true Christian doesn't hate any one, but it's the difference in religion that has created all this misunderstanding. Because God said love one another as you love me.

Location

GH

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